A comparative study of native growth-promoting rhizobacteria and commercial biofertilizer on maize (Zea mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) development in a saline environment
Arun Karnwal 1, A-F  
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Microbiology, Bhojia Institute of Life Sciences, India
A - Research concept and design; B - Collection and/or assembly of data; C - Data analysis and interpretation; D - Writing the article; E - Critical revision of the article; F - Final approval of article
Arun Karnwal   

Microbiology, Bhojia Institute of Life Sciences, Bhojia Institute of Life Sciences, 173205, Baddi, India
Submission date: 2021-09-06
Acceptance date: 2021-11-17
Online publication date: 2021-12-13
Salinity is one of the most significant constraints to crop production in dry parts of the world.. This research emphasizes the beneficial effects of plant growth-promoting rhizobacterial isolates (PGPR) on the physiological responses of maize and wheat in a saline (NaCl) environment. Soil samples for the study were collected from a maize field in Baddi, Himachal Pradesh, India. Isolated bacterial strains were screened for salt (NaCl) tolerance and plant growth-promoting characters (i.e., indole acetic acid (IAA) production, siderophore production, amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase activity, hydrogen cyanide (HCN) production, and mineral phosphate solubilization). Screened bacterial isolates were further tested in pot experiments to examine their effects on wheat and maize growth. The treatments included five levels of bacterial inoculation (P0: control, P1: ACC deaminase positive+ siderophore producer + NaCl tolerant bacte¬ria, P2: mineral phosphate solubilizer + HCN producer + NaCl tolerant bacteria, P3: IAA producer + ACC deaminase positive+ NaCl tolerant bacteria, P4: bacterial consortium, P5: Phosphomax commercial biofertilizer) and salt stress at 6 dS/m. Research findings found that exposure to a bacterial consortium led to the highest growth parameter in maize, including shoot length, root length, shoot and root dry weight followed by P2, P3, and P5 treatments at 6 dS/m salinity levels. However, P2 showed the best results for wheat at the same salinity levels, followed by P3, P4 and P5 treatments. P1 treatment did not show a significant result compared to control at 6dS/m salt level for both crops. The maximum proline content in maize and wheat was observed in P4 (23.28µmol/g) and P2 (15.52µmol/g) treatments, respectively, followed by P5 with Phosphomax biofertilizer. Therefore, the study proposed the application of growth-promoting bacterial isolates as efficient biofertilizers in the Baddi region of Himachal Pradesh, India.
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.