Acaricidal, ovicidal, and repellent effects of Tagetes patula leaf extract against Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae)
Manal Sayed Mohamed Ismail 1, A-F  
Hend Maroof Tag 2, A
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Department of Vegetable and Ornamental Plant Mites, Plant Protection Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Cairo, Egypt
Department of Zoology, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt
A - Research concept and design; B - Collection and/or assembly of data; C - Data analysis and interpretation; D - Writing the article; E - Critical revision of the article; F - Final approval of article
Manal Sayed Mohamed Ismail   

Department of Vegetable and Ornamental Plant Mites, Plant Protection Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Cairo, Egypt
Online publish date: 2019-06-13
Submission date: 2018-10-06
Acceptance date: 2019-05-17
Journal of Plant Protection Research 2019;59(2):151–159
This study investigates the acaricidal, ovicidal, and repellent effects of the Tagetes patula Linn. (Asteraceae) leaf extract against both the adult female and egg stages of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Trombidiformes: Tetranychidae) under laboratory conditions. The Tagetes patula ethanolic leaf extract [TpEtOH70%] was screened for adulticide and ovicide bioassays in order to consider its acute toxicity. One sublethal concentration was used to assess egg-laying capacity (fecundity), repellent, and oviposition deterrent activities. The chemical characterization was conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis to identify the TpEtOH70% bioactive components. Results showed that the LC50 value of TpEtOH70% leaf extract predicted by Probit analysis against T. urticae adult females at 24 h was 0.99%. The TpEtOH70% leaf extract showed a significant toxic effect as the highest mean mortality rates (± SE) of the treated adult females was 88.9 ± 3.7%. However, the TpEtOH70% leaf extract was insignificant in affecting the egg-laying capacity of the adult females treated with a sublethal dose of 0.5% even after 72 h. The TpEtOH70% leaf extract was classified repellent since the repellent index (RI) value was lower than 1 – SD. In addition, it had a high oviposition deterring effect based on a 100% reduction of the total number of eggs. The TpEtOH70% leaf extract had a significant ovicidal effect on T. urticae eggs, with 56.04% reduction in hatching. Five bioactive compounds from various classes of phytochemicals were identified in the TpEtOH70% leaf extract and the major compound was phytol (62.72%). This pioneering investigation reveals the adulticidal, ovicidal, and repellent activities of the TpEtOH70% leaf extract against T. urticae. A combination of multiple modes of action of different plant components may act alone or in synergism to delay the development of mite resistance.
We are thankful to Prof. Dr. Mona M.A. Ghallab, Vegetable & Ornamental Plant Mites Department, Plant Protection Research Institute (PPRI), Agricultural Research Center (ARC), for her kind help and contribution to this work. We would also like to extend our thanks to the Orman Garden staff.
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
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