Aspergillus niger, a dominant phylloplane coloniser, influences the activity of defense enzymes in Solanum lycopersicum
Susmita Goswami 1, A-D
,   Prabir Kumar Paul 1, E-F  
,   Prem Datt Sharma 2, F
More details
Hide details
Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University, Noida, India
Department of Botany, University of Delhi, New Delhi, India
A - Research concept and design; B - Collection and/or assembly of data; C - Data analysis and interpretation; D - Writing the article; E - Critical revision of the article; F - Final approval of article
Prabir Kumar Paul   

Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University, Noida, India
Submission date: 2019-01-23
Acceptance date: 2019-06-18
Online publication date: 2019-12-18
Journal of Plant Protection Research 2019;59(4):512–518
Phylloplane microbes have been studied as strategic tools in management against plant pathogens. Non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi have been applied as crop protectants against various plant diseases. The present study aimed at evaluating the potentiality of Aspergillus niger spores in altering the activity of four key enzymes related to defense in tomato. The experiment was designed such that two groups of 50 tomato plants were considered: group 1 – sprayed with autoclaved distilled water (control) and group 2 – sprayed with A. niger spores. Spraying was carried out under aseptic conditions. The experimental parameters included analysis of the activity of peroxidase (POX), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL) as well as expression of POX and PPO isoforms. The results demonstrated an inductive effect of A. niger on the activity of POX, PPO, PAL and TAL. Enhanced expression of POX and PPO isoforms was also observed. The results indicated that A. niger can be considered probiotic for the management of tomato against its phytopathogens.
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
Andrews J. H. 1992. Biological control in the phyllosphere. Annual Review of Phytopathology 30 (1): 603–635. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annure....
Batool F., Rehman Y., Hasnain S. 2016. Phylloplane associated plant bacteria of commercially superior wheat varieties exhibit superior plant growth promoting abilities. Frontiers in Life Science 9 (4): 313–322. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/215537....
Bhuvaneshwari V., Paul P.K. 2012. Transcriptional and translational regulation of defense enzymes induced by neem fruit extract in tomato. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection 45 (12): 1374–1385. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/032354....
Blakeman J.P. 1991. Foliar bacterial pathogens: Epiphytic growth and interactions on leaves. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 70: 49–59.
Bogdanović J., Dučić T., Milosavić N., Vujčić Z., Šijačić M., Isajev V., Radotić K. 2005. Antioxidant enzymes in the needles of different omorika lines. Archives of Biological Sciences 57 (4): 277–282. DOI: 10.2298/ABS0504277B.
Bradford M.M. 1976. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantification of microgram quantities of proteins utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry 72: 248–254. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-2....
Braga F.R., Carvalh R.O., Araujo J.M., Silva A.R., Araujo J.V., Lima W.S., Tavela A.O., Ferreira S.R. 2009. Predatory activity of the fungi Duddingtonia flagrans, Monacrosporium thaumasium, Monacrosporium sinense and Arthrobotrys robusta on Angiostrongylus vasorum first-stage larvae. Journal of Helminthology 83 (4): 303–308. DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X09232342.
Buxdorf K., Rahat I., Gafni A., Levy M. 2013. The epiphytic fungus Pseudozyma aphidis induces jasmonic acid-and salicylic acid/nonexpressor of PR1-independent local and systemic resistance. Plant Physiology 161 (4): 2014–2022. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.112....
Chowdappa P., Kumar S.M., Lakshmi M.J., Upreti K.K. 2013. Growth stimulation and induction of systemic resistance in tomato against early and late blight by Bacillus subtilis OTPB1 or Trichoderma harzianum OTPB3. Biological Control 65 (1): 109–117. DOI: https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2....
Costa P.H.A., Neto A.D.A., Bezerra M.A., Prisco J.T., Filho E.G. 2005. Antioxidant-enzymatic system of two sorghum genotypes differing in salt tolerance. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology 17 (4): 353–362. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S167....
de Azevedo Neto A.D., Prisco J.T., Eneas-Filho J., de Abreu C.E.B., Gomes-Filho E. 2006. Effect of salt stress on antioxidative enzymes and lipid peroxidation in leaves and roots of salttolerant and salt-sensitive maize genotypes. Environmental and Experimental Botany 56 (1): 87–94. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enve....
Evueh G.A., Ogbebor N.O. 2008. Use of phylloplane fungi as biocontrol agent against Colletotrichum leaf disease of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.- rg.). African Journal of Biotechnology 7 (15): 2569–2572. DOI: 10.5897/AJB07.757.
Fernandez V., Bahamonde H.A., Peguero-Pina J.J., Gil-Pelegrín E., Sancho-Knapik D., Gil L., Eichert T. 2017. Physicochemical properties of plant cuticles and their functional and ecological significance. Journal of Experimental Botany 68 (19): 5293–5306. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/er....
Gajera H.P., Savaliya D.D., Patel S.V., Golakiya B.A. 2015. Lipoxygenase-related defense response induced by Trichoderma viride against Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem, inciting collar rot in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Phytoparasitica 43 (2): 229–240. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12600....
Karthikeyan M., Bhaskaran R., Mathiyazhagan S., Velazhahan R. 2007. Influence of phylloplane colonizing biocontrol agents on the black spot of rose caused by Diplocarpon rosae. Journal of Plant Interactions 2 (4): 225–231. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/174291....
Kuberan T., Vidhyapallavi R.S., Balamurugan A., Nepolean P., Jayanthi R., Premkumar R. 2012. Isolation and biocontrol potential of phylloplane Trichoderma against Glomerella cingulata in tea. Journal of Agricultural Technology 8 (3): 1039–1050.
Laemmli U.K. 1970. Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature 227 (5259): 680–685.
Mathivanan N., Prabavathy V.R., Vijayanandraj V.R. 2008. The effect of fungal secondary metabolites on bacterial and fungal pathogens. p. 129–140 In: “Secondary Metabolites in Soil Ecology” (Karlovsky P., ed). Soil Biology. Vol. 14, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Mitra J., Bhuvaneshwari V., Paul P.K. 2013. Broad spectrum management of plant diseases by phylloplane microfungal metabolites. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection 46 (16): 1993–2001. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/032354....
Ojha S., Chatterjee N. 2012. Induction of resistance in tomato plants against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici mediated through salicylic acid and Trichoderma harzianum. Journal of Plant Protection Research 52 (2): 220–225. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10045....
Rao K.V., Suprasanna P., Reddy G.M. 1989. Studies on enzyme and isozyme patterns in embryogenic glume calli of maize. Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy. Part B Biological Sciences 55 (4): 277–280.
Saleem B., Paul P.K. 2016. Microbial colonization of tomato phylloplane is influenced by leaf age. Journal of Functional and Environmental Botany 6 (1): 8–15. DOI: 10.5958/2231-1750.2016.00002.0.
Shoresh M., Harman G.E., Mastouri F. 2010. Induced systemic resistance and plant responses to fungal biocontrol agents. Annual Review of Phytopathology 48: 21–43. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annure....
Singh B.N., Singh A., Singh B.R., Singh H.B. 2014. Trichoderma harzianum elicits induced resistance in sunflower challenged by Rhizoctonia solani. Journal of Applied Microbiology 116 (3): 654–666. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jam.12....
Stewart D., Shepherd L.V.T. 2013. Metabolomics for the safety assessment of genetically modified (GM) crops. p. 192–216. In: “Metabolomics in Food and Nutrition” Woodhead Publishing. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1533/978085....
Thakur M., Sohal B.S. 2013. Role of elicitors in inducing resistance in plants against pathogen infection: a review. ISRN Biochemistry, 2013. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1155/201....
Windham MT., Elad Y., Baker R. 1986. A mechanism for increased plant growth induced by Trichoderma spp. Phytopathology 76 (5): 518–521. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/Phyt....
Zaidi N.W., Dar M.H., Singh S., Singh U.S. 2014. Trichoderma species as abiotic stress relievers in plants. p. 515–525. In: “Biotechnology and Biology of Trichoderma” (Gupta V., Schmoll M., Herrera-Estrella A., Upadhyay R., Druzhi nina I., Tuohy M., eds.). Elsevier, Amsterdam.