Presently, finding effective, simple, inexpensive, hygienic and safe pest control agents are the biggest challenges in management of stored product insects, where those features are available in most physical factors. The insecticidal efficiency of four diversified physical control agents (ultraviolet and microwave irradiations, thermal remediation and silica nanoparticles) were assayed against the most common coleopteran insect species (Sitophilus oryzae L. and Tribolium castaneum Herbst) on stored wheat. Exposing tested insects to microwave irradiations (2450 MHz) for 25 sec gave preventive efficiency for stored material, which reached 97.68 and 99.02%, respectively. Sufficient exposure periods to kill 50% of the coleopteran adults (LT50%) were 13 and 14 sec, respectively. For effective control with UV radiations, S. oryzae should be exposed for 12 h and T. castaneum for 24 h. An exposure period of 24 h caused progeny reduction 95.24 and 89.72% and gave preventive efficiency of 94.25 and 93.37%, respectively. Values of LT50% were 56.76 and 74.04 h, respectively. Exposing infested samples of the tested species to 70oC for 10 min killed 100% of adults and caused complete cessation of egg laying. Furthermore, 65°C or 70°C caused full progeny reduction. The lowest level of stored product weight loss (1.15 and 1.35%, respectively) occurred at 70°C, where sufficient exposure temperatures to kill 50% of the coleopteran adults (LTD50%) were 60.95°C and 61.63°C, respectively. Synthetic silica nanoparticles (SSiNPs) were more toxic against the tested populations than bio-silica nanoparticles (BSiNPs) after 48–72 h. A concentration of 1.00 g ∙ kg–1 of tested silica nanoparticles caused significant reduction in adult populations, saved wheat grain vitality and gave least lost weights of flour (3.35–6.85%).
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
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