ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Bakanae disease of rice in Malaysia and Indonesia: Etiology of the causal agent based on morphological, physiological and pathogenicity characteristics
 
More details
Hide details
1
Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang Selangor, Malaysia
2
School of Biological Sciences, University Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Zainudin Nur Ain Izzati Mohd
Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang Selangor, Malaysia
 
Journal of Plant Protection Research 2008;48(4):475–485
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Bakanae disease on rice has been recorded almost in all countries where paddy is grown commercially, especially in Asian countries, including Malaysia and Indonesia. Bakanae disease was widespread in Peninsular Malaysia and three provinces of Indonesia with the range of disease severity from scale 1 to 5 and disease incidence from 0.5 to 12.5% during 2004–2005 main growing seasons. A total of five Fusarium species belonging to section Liseola and their allied i.e. Fusarium fujikuroi, F. proliferatum, F. sacchari, F. subglutinans and F. verticillioides were isolated and identified on the basis of their morphological characteristics. Literature data showed that the bakanae disease of rice all over the world is caused by F. fujikuroi and probably some other Fusarium species from section Liseola or allied. However, from pathogenicity tests that have been carried out by using variety MR 211 of rice it was evident that F. fujikuroi was highly virulent and the only species involved in causing bakanae disease. Therefore, this species was the only one detected to be able to produce gibberellic acid – (GA3) with Rf value 0.40 and 0.62, developed in solvent systems isopropanol:ammonia:water (10 : 1 : 1), v/v/ v and chloroform:ethyl acetate:formic acid (5 : 4 : 1), v/v/v, respectively. This knowledge would be invaluable in developing our understanding on the interaction between F. fujikuroi and the host plants.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
 
REFERENCES (27)
1.
Agarwal P.C., Mortensen C.N., Mathur S.B. 1989. Seed-borne diseases and seed health testing of rice. Phytopathology 3: 31–35.
 
2.
Ahmed H.U., Mia M.A.T., Miah S.A. 1986. Standardized test tube inoculation for bakanae disease (Bak). Intern. Rice Res. Notes 11: 21–22.
 
3.
Amoah B.K., MacDonald M.V., Rezanoor H.N., Nicholson P. 1996. The use of random amplified polymorphic DNA technique to identify mating groups in the Fusarium Section Liseola. Plant Pathol. 45: 115–125.
 
4.
Amoah B.K., Rezanoor H.N., Nicholson P., MacDonald M.V. 1995. Variation in the Fusarium Section Liseola: pathogenicity and genetic studies of isolates of Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon from different hosts in Ghana. Plant Pathol. 44: 563–572.
 
5.
Anon 1996. Standard Evaluation System for Rice. International Rice Research Institute, Laguna, Philippines, 52 pp.
 
6.
Booth C. 1971. The genus Fusarium. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, Surrey, 221 pp.
 
7.
Chang Y.P., Jacobs W.P. 1973. The regulation of abscission and IAA by senescence factor and abscisic acid. Am. J. Bot. 60: 10–16.
 
8.
Desjardins A.E., Manandhar H.K., Plattner R.D., Manandhar G.G., Poling S.M., Maragos C.M. 2000. Fusarium species from Nepalese rice and production of mycotoxins and gibberellic acid by selected species. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66: 1020–1025.
 
9.
Desjardins E.A., Plattner R.D., Nelson P.E. 1997. Production of fumonisin B sub 1 and moniliformin by Gibberella fujikuroi from rice from various geographic areas. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63: 1838–1842.
 
10.
Fessenden R.J., Fessenden J.S., Feist P. 2001. Organic Laboratory Techniques. Brooks/Cole Thomson Leaning, Inc. Canada: 133–138.
 
11.
Hasan H.A.H. 2002. Gibberellin and auxin production by plant root-fungi and their biosynthesis under salinity-calcium interaction. Rostalinńa Výroba 48: 101–106.
 
12.
Johnson S.W., Coolbaugh R.C. 1990. Light-stimulated gibberellin biosysnthesis in Gibberella fujikuroi. Plant Physiol. 94: 1696–1701.
 
13.
Johnston A., Booth C. 1983. Plant Pathologist’s Pocketbook. Kew, Surrey, UK: Commonwealth Mycological Institute, 448 pp.
 
14.
Leslie J.F., Summerell B.A. 2006. The Fusarium Laboratory Manual. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, UK.
 
15.
MacLean J.L., Dawe D.C., Hardy B., Hettel G.P. 2002. Rice Almanac: Source Book for the Most Important Economic Activity on Earth. CBI Publishing Company Inc, Boston, Massachussetts, 253 pp.
 
16.
Nelson P.E., Toussoun T.A., Marasas W.F.O. 1983. Fusarium Species: An Ilustrated Manual for Identification. The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, 193 pp.
 
17.
Nirenberg H.I. 1976. Untersuchungen uber die morphologische and biologische differenzierung in Fusarium – Sektion Liseola. Mitt. Biol. Bundesansi. Land-Forstwirtsch. Berlin – Dahlem 169: 1–117.
 
18.
Nirenberg H.I., O’Donnell K. 1998. New Fusarium species and combinations within the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex. Mycologia 90: 434–458.
 
19.
Ooi K.H. 2002. Pencirian dan pengawalan kimia Fusarium oxysporum, penyebab penyakit layu vascular pada rosel. Ph.D. thesis. University Sains Malaysia, Malaysia, 355 pp.
 
20.
Ou S.H. 1985. Rice Diseases. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, Surrey, 380 pp.
 
21.
Rajagopalan K., Bhuvaneswari K. 1975. Effect of germination of seed and host exuadations during germination on foot-rot disease of rice. University Botany Laboratory, Madras-5, India: 221–226.
 
22.
Rosmayati T. 1988. Kajian penyakit bakanae pada padi yang disebabkan oleh Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon dan kawalannya, di utara Malaysia. M.Sc. thesis. Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia, 250 pp.
 
23.
Schnitzler W.H. 1989. Rice: Diseases, pests, weeds and nutritional disorders. BASF Aktiengesellschaft: 24–45.
 
24.
Snyder W.C., Hansen H.N. 1945. The species concept in Fusarium with reference to Discolor and other sections. Am. J. Bot. 32: 657–666.
 
25.
Sun S.K., Snyder W.C. 1981. The bakanae disease of the rice plant. p. 104–113. In: Fusarium: Disease, Biology and Taxonomy (P.E. Nelson, T.A. Toussoun, R.J. Cook, eds.). The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park.
 
26.
Sunder S., Satyavir S. 1998. Vegetative compatibility, biosynthesis of GA3 and virulence of Fusarium moniliforme isolates from bakanae disease of rice. Plant Pathol. 47: 767–772.
 
27.
Teng P.S., James W.C. 2001. Disease and yield loss assessment. p. 25–38. In: ‘Plant Pathologist’s Pocketbook’ (J.M. Waller, J.M. Lenné, S.J. Waller, eds.). CABI Publishing Company Inc. Boston, Massachussetts.
 
eISSN:1899-007X
ISSN:1427-4345