Cellular energy allocation in the predatory bug, Andrallus spinidens Fabricius (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), following sublethal exposure to diazinon, fenitrothion, and chlorpyrifos
More details
Hide details
Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agricultural Science, University of Guilan, P.O. Box 1841, Rasht, Iran
Department of Biological Control, Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, P.O. Box 145, Amol, Iran
Moloud Gholamzadeh Chitgar
Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agricultural Science, University of Guilan, P.O. Box 1841, Rasht, Iran
Submission date: 2013-07-13
Acceptance date: 2014-01-27
Journal of Plant Protection Research 2014;54(1):78–84
It is necessary to study the biochemical changes in insects exposed to toxicants if we want to predict the potential of various chemicals on the natural enemy. Physiological energy, as a biochemical biomarker, may be affected by many pesticides including organophosphate compounds. Therefore, in this study, the sublethal effects of diazinon, fenitrothion, and chlorpyrifos on the cellular energy allocation (CEA) of the predatory bug, Andrallus spinidens Fabricius (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), a potential biological control agent, was studied on 5th-instar nymphs. Among the energy reserves of the A. spinidens nymphs, only total protein was significantly affected by pesticide treatments, and the highest value was observed in chlorpyrifos treatment. The energy available (E a) and energy consumption (E c) in A. spinidens were significantly affected by these pesticides. In exposed bugs, these parameters were affected by fenitrothion and chlorpyrifos more than diazinon. The activity of the electron transport system (ETS) in the Ec assay showed that A. spinidens exposed to chlorpyrifos had the highest rate of oxygen consumption. Although, there was no significant change in CEA, the insecticides caused a marked change in the physiological balance of A. spinidens. The results suggested that the adverse effect of these insecticides on A. spinidens should be considered in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs.
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
Abdul Mujeeb K., Latif M., Ayaz Ilyas M., Shahid Ali S. 2011. Effect of organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos on some biochemical components of Trogoderma granarium larvae Everts. Sci. Int. (Lahore) 23 (3): 229–233.
Babu P.R.A., Reddy G.R., Babu G.R.V., Chetty C.S. 1988. Glycolitic oxidation in freshwater fish, Sarotherodon mossambicus during benthiocarb exposure. Curr. Sci. 57 (11): 591–594.
Bagheri F., Talebi K.H., Hosseininaveh V. 2010. Cellular energy allocation of pistachio green stink bug, Brachynema germari Kol. (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in relation to juvenoid pyriproxyfen. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 9 (35): 5746–5753.
Bradford M. 1976. A rapid and sensitive method for quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal. Biochem. 72 (72): 248–254.
Cymborowski B. 1992. Insect Endocrinology. Polish Scientific Publisher PWN, Warszawa, 234 pp.
De Coen W.M., Janssen C.R., Giesy J.P. 2000. Biomarker applications in ecotoxicology: Bridging the gap between toxicology and ecology. p. 13–25. In: “New Microbiotests for Routine Toxicity Screening and Biomonitoring” (C.R. Janssen, G. Persoone, W.M. De Coen, eds.). Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 550 pp.
De Coen W.M., Janssen C.R. 1997. The use of biomarkers in Daphnia magna toxicity. Cellular energy allocation: a new methodology to assess the energy budget of toxicant-stressed Daphnia populations. J. Aquat. Ecosyst. Stress Recovery 6 (1): 43–55.
Downer R.G., Matthews J.R. 1976. Patterns of lipid storage and utilization in insects. Am. Zool. 16 (4): 733–745.
Downer R.G. 1982. Fat body and metabolism. p. 52–60. In: “The American Cockroach” (W.J. Bell, K.G. Adiyodi, eds.). Chapman & Hall, NY, 529 pp.
El Wakeil N., Gaafar N., Sallam A., Volkmar C. 2013. Side effects of insecticides on natural enemies and possibility of their integration in plant protection strategies. p. 1–56. In: “Insecticides: Development of Safer and More Effective Technologies Agricultural and Biological Sciences (S. Trdan, ed.). InTech Open Access Publisher, 548 pp.
Jabakumar S.R.D., Jayaraman F.A.Z. 1988. Changes in protein, lipid and carbohydrate content in fresh water fish, Lepidocephalicythys thermalis during short-term sublethal exposure of malathion. Ann. Zool. 26 (1): 82–89.
Jadhao M. 2011. A preliminary study of the predatory natural enemy complex of rice ecosystem in Vidarbha region of Maharashtra, India. Int. Ref. Res. J. 2 (22): 25–27.
King F., Packard T.T. 1975. Respiration and the activity of the respiratory electron transport system in marine zooplankton. Limnol. Oceanogr. 20 (5): 849–854.
Koundinya P.R., Ramamurthi R. 1979. Effect of organophosphate pesticide (fenitrothion) on some aspects of carbohydrate metabolism in a freshwater fish, Sarotherodon (Tilapia) mossamicus (Peters). Experientia 35: 1632–1633.
Landa V., Sula J., Marec F., Matha V., Soldan, T. 1991. Methods for assessing exposure of insects. p. 249–266. In: “Methods for Assessing Exposure of Human and Non-Human Biota” (R.G. Tardiff, B. Goldstein, eds.). John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Chichester, New York, 417 pp.
LeOra software. 1987. POLO-PC: a user guide to probit or logit 786 analysis. Berkeley (CA): LeOra software.
Manley G.V. 1982. Biology and life history of the rice field predator Andrallus spinidens F. (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). Entomol. News 93 (1): 19–24.
Marron M.T., Markow T.A., Kain K.J., Gibbs A.G. 2003. Effects of starvation and desiccation on energy metabolism in desert and mesic Drosophila. J. Insect Physiol. 49 (3): 261–270.
McKenney C.L. 1998. Physiological dysfunction in estuarine mysids and larval decapods with chronic pesticide exposure. p. 465– 476. In: “Microscale Testing in Aquatic Toxicology: Advances, Techniques, and Practice” (P.G. Wells, C. Blaise, eds.). CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 720 pp.
Najafi-Navaee A., Saeb H., Osco T. 1998. Biology and ecology of Andrallus spinidens F. as the predator of rice, cotton and maize pests. p. 49. In: 13th Iranian Plant Protection Congress, Karaj, Iran, 23-27 August 1998, 262 pp.
Nath B.S. 2000. Changes in carbohydrate metabolism in hemolymph and fat body of the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. exposed to organophosphorus insecticides. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 68 (3): 127.
Neoliya N.K., Singh D., Sangawan R. 2005. Azadiractin influences total head protein content of Helicoverpa armigera Hub. larvae. Curr. Sci. 88 (12): 1889–1990.
Noorhosseini Niyaki S.A. 2010. Decline of pesticides application by using biological control: the case study in North of Iran. Middle-East J. Scientific Res. 6 (2): 166–169.
Oberdorster E., Rittschof D., McClellan-Green P. 1998. Induction of cytochrome P450 3A and heat shock protein by tributyltin in blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. Aquat. Toxicol. 41 (1–2): 83–100.
Regulation (EC) No 1107/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 October 2009 concerning the placing of plant protection products on the market and repealing Council Directives 79/117/EEC and 91/414/EEC.
Remia K.M., Logaswamy S., Logankumar K., Rajmohan D. 2008. Effect of an insecticides (Monocrotophos) on some biochemical constituents of the fish Tilipia mossambica. Poll. Res. 27 (3): 523–526.
Saleem M.A., Shakoori A.R., Mantle D. 1998. In vivo ripcord induced macromolecules abnormalities in Tribolium castenium larvae. Pakistan J. Zool. 30 (3): 233–243.
SAS Institute, 2002. SAS/STAT user’s guide. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC Inc.
Shahid Ali N., Shahid Ali S., Shakoori A.R. 2013. Effects of sublethal doses of malathion on biochemical components of malathion-resistant and -susceptible adults of Rhyzopertha dominica. Pakistan J. Zool. 45 (1): 203–212.
Shoba V., Elanchezhiyan C., Hemalatha S., Selvisabanayakam S. 2011. Sublethal effect of phytopesticide nimbecidine on biochemical changes in the adult male insect Sphaerodema rusticum (Heteroptera: Belostomatidae). Int. J. Res. Pharm. Sci. 2 (1): 12–17.
Smith R.L., Hargreaves B.R. 1984. Oxygen consumption in Neomysis americana (Crustacea: Mysidacea) and the effects of naphthalene exposure. Mar. Biol. 79 (2): 109– 116.
Tanani M.A., Ghoneim K.S., Hamadah Kh.Sh. 2012. Comparative effects of certain igrs on the carbohydrates of hemolymph and fat body of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Fla. Entomol. 95 (4): 928–935.
Thunberg L.V., Manchester K.L. 1972. Effect of denervation on the glycogen content and on the activities of enzyme glucose and glycogen metabolism in rat diaphragm muscle. Biol. J. 128 (4): 128–789.
Verslycke T., Roast S.D., Widdows J., Jones M.B., Janssen C.R. 2004. Cellular energy allocation and scope for growth in the estuarine mysid Neomysis integer (Crustaycea: Mysidacea) following chlorpyrifos exposure: a method comparison. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. J. 360 (1): 1–16.
Watanabe M., Tanaka K. 2009. Hormonal control of diapause and overwintering traits in a leaf beetle, Aulacophora nigripennis. Physiol. Entomol. 25 (4): 337–345.
Yuval B., Kaspi R., Shloush S., Warburg M.S. 1998. Nutritional reserves regulate male participation in Mediterranean fruit fly leks. Ecol. Entomol. 23 (2): 211–215.
Zhao L., Jones W.A. 2012. Expression of heat shock protein genes in insect stress responses. Minireview 9 (1): 93–101.