Effect of Nozzle Type Selection on Prickly Sida (Sida spinosa) and Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) Control in Mississippi Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)
J. Connor Ferguson 1,2, A-F  
,   Justin S. Calhoun 3,2, B-D,F,   Kayla L. Broster 2, B,D,F,   Luke H. Merritt 4,2, B-C,F,   Zachary R. Treadway 5,2, B-C,F,   Michael T Wesley Jr. 6,2, B-C,F,   Nicholas Fleitz 7, A,F
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Weed Science and Technical Agronomy, Sesaco Corporation, United States
Plant and Soil Sciences, Mississippi State University, United States
Plant Science and Technology, University of Missouri, United States
Orr Agricultural Research & Demonstration Center, University of Illinois, United States
Plant and Soil Sciences, Oklahoma State University, United States
Agronomy, Bayer Crop Science, United States
Application Agronomist, Pentair-Hypro, United States
A - Research concept and design; B - Collection and/or assembly of data; C - Data analysis and interpretation; D - Writing the article; E - Critical revision of the article; F - Final approval of article
J. Connor Ferguson   

Weed Science and Technical Agronomy, Sesaco Corporation, 12509 SW 5th St, 73099, Yukon, United States
Submission date: 2021-10-14
Acceptance date: 2021-11-25
Online publication date: 2021-12-14
Nozzle type and herbicide application timing can affect herbicide efficacy. Prickly sida (Sida spinosa) and barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) are problematic weeds in eastern Mississippi cotton production and have reduced yield in recent years. Field studies were conducted at two locations - Brooksville, MS (2018, 2019) and Starkville, MS (2019) to understand the nozzle type and herbicide application timing effects on prickly sida and barnyardgrass control in cotton. Studies also compared applications made by an eight-nozzle tractor-mounted sprayer with a four-nozzle backpack sprayer. Herbicide applications were made at four timings: preemergence (PRE), early-postemergence (EPOST), mid-postemergence (MPOST), and late-postemergence (LPOST) corresponding to the preemergence (immediately after planting), two-to-three leaf, four-to-six leaf, and early-bloom stages, respectively. Treatments were made at 140 L ha-1 applied at each growth stage, with nozzle type and sprayer as variables by each timing. Results showed no differences in treatments applied with backpack and tractor-mounted sprayers. Control of barnyardgrass was significantly affected by nozzle type, but control of prickly sida was not significantly influenced by nozzle type. In all three site-years, plots receiving a MPOST only herbicide application resulted in less weed control than areas receiving a two-pass POST herbicide program. Cotton yield was significantly affected by the herbicide program at one site-year, but was not significantly affected by the herbicide program except where cotton injury exceeded 15%. A two- or three-pass herbicide program was most effective in controlling prickly sida and barnyardgrass in Mississippi cotton.
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.