ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Effect of surface amino acids on the growth of Peltaster fructicola – fungus associated with sooty blotch complex
 
More details
Hide details
1
Agricultural University, Faculty of Horticulture, Department of Plant Pathology Al. 29 Listopada 54, 31-425 Kraków, Poland;
2
Iowa State University, Department of Plant Pathology, Ames, Iowa 50011, USA
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Beata Wrona
Agricultural University, Faculty of Horticulture, Department of Plant Pathology Al. 29 Listopada 54, 31-425 Kraków, Poland;
 
Journal of Plant Protection Research 2005;45(4):273–278
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Studies undertaken in 2002–2004 on ‘Golden Delicious’ apple fruits showed the presence of amino acids on the surface of their skin. Amount of total free amino acids ranged from 2.5 to 3.0 mg/L. In in vitro bioassays it was found that amino acids as a basic source of nitrogen did not activate germination of conidia of Peltaster fructicola (Johnson). However amino acids stimulated elongation of germ tubes and early hyphal growth. It was confirmed that fruit washings also contained sugars that stimulated both conidial germination and germ tube elongation. We proved also that different carbon to nitrogen proportions significantly affected P. fructicola growth. Proportions of C:N were evaluated according to newly introduced amino acid sugar index (ASI)
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
 
REFERENCES (16)
1.
Abdel A.M., Arbab H.A. 1985. Nutrient requirements in germination of conidiospores of Aspergillus niger . Mycopathologia 92: 111–113.
 
2.
Belding R.D., Sutton T.B., Blankenship S.M., Young E. 2000. Relationship between apple fruit epicuticular wax and growth of Peltaster fructicola and Leptodontium elatius , two fungi that cause sooty blotch disease. Plant Dis., 84: 767–772.
 
3.
Beckman P.M., Payne G.A. 1983. Cultural techniques and conditions influencing growth and sporulation of Cercospora zeae-maydis and lesion development in corn. Phytopathology 73: 286–289.
 
4.
Chaky J., Anderson K., Moss M., Vaillancourt L. 2001. Surface hydrophobicity and surface rigidity induce spore germination in Colletotrichum graminicola . Phytopathology 93: 193–199.
 
5.
Dubois M., Gilles K.A., Hamilton J.K. 1956. Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Analytical Chemistry 28: 350–356.
 
6.
D’Enfert C. 1997. Fungal spore germination: insights from nuclear genetics of A. nidulans and N. crassa . Fungal Genet. Biol., 21: 163–172.
 
7.
Elson M.K., Schisler D.A., Jackson M.A. 1998. Carbon-to-nitrogen ratio, carbon concentration and amino acid composition of growth media influence conidiation of Helminthosporium solani . Mycologia 90: 410–413.
 
8.
Fiala N.C., Glod M., Martin M., Idiret E., Derridj S. 1990. Occurrence of soluble carbohydrates on the phylloplane of maize ( Zea mays L.): variations in relation to leaf heterogeneity and position on the plant. New Phytol., 115: 609–615.
 
9.
Lapaire C.L., Dunke L.D. 2003. Microcycle conidiation in Cercospora zeae-maydis . Phytopathology 93: 193–199.
 
10.
Lindow S.E., Brandl M.T. 2003. Microbiology of the Phyllosphere. Appl. and Env. Microb., 69: 1875–1883.
 
11.
Mercier J., Lindow S.E. 1998. Role of surface sugars in colonization leaves by bacterial epiphytes. Appl. and Env. Microb., 66: 369–377.
 
12.
Nelson F.B., Hsu J.S. 1994. Nutritional factors affecting responses of sporangia of Pythium ultimum to germination stimulants. Phytopathology 84: 677–683.
 
13.
Osherov N., May G. 2000. Conidial germination in Aspergillus nidulans requires RAS signaling and protein synthesis. Genetics 155: 647–656.
 
14.
Wrona B. 2002. Etiology and biology of apple sooty blotch in Poland. Ph. D. Thesis, Agricultural University of Cracow, 130 pp.
 
15.
Xu G., West T.B. 1992. Nutritional and physiological factors affecting germination of heterothallic S. cerrvsiae ascospores. Microbios 72: 27–34.
 
16.
Yemm L.W., Cocking E.C. 1955. The determination of amino acids with ninhydrin. Analyst 80: 209–214.
 
eISSN:1899-007X
ISSN:1427-4345