ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Effects of farming system, chemical control, fertilizer and sowing density on sharp eyespot and Rhizoctonia spp. in winter wheat
 
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University of Technology and Life Sciences Department of Phytopathology and Molecular Mycology Kordeckiego 20, 85-225 Bydgoszcz, Poland
Submission date: 2012-03-13
Acceptance date: 2012-05-17
 
Journal of Plant Protection Research 2012;52(4):381–396
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ABSTRACT:
Effects of agronomic practices on the occurrence of sharp eyespot and Rhizoctonia spp. in winter wheat were determined in two field experiments. In Experiment 1, in the village of Osiny, a comparison was made of disease in different farming systems. The farming systems were: organic, integrated, conventional, and monoculture. In Experiment 2, in the village of Mochełek, the effects of different chemical controls (no treatment, herbicide, herbicide + fungicide), mineral fertilizer doses (147 and 221 kg/ha NPK) and sowing densities (400 and 600 grains/m 2 ) on the occurrence of sharp eyespot were compared in wheat grown in short-term monoculture. There was considerably more sharp eyespot in 2007 (disease index 1.63–29.5%) than in other years. Significant effects of the treatments were mostly noted at the milk ripe growth stage. The fewest sharp eyespot symptoms were seen in the integrated farming system. The most sharp eyespot symptoms were seen in the conventional and organic systems. There was a tendency for an increased intensity of symptoms in successive wheat-growing years of short-term monoculture. The application of pesticides showed no clear effect on the occurrence of sharp eyespot. The herbicide resulted in increased or decreased disease intensity depending on the cultivation year and the date of observation. Fungicide application did not decrease infection. Without chemical control, more symptoms were observed at the lower NPK rate. There were more symptoms at the higher sowing density. Stems with sharp eyespot symptoms were mostly infected by Rhizoctonia cerealis , and less frequently by R. solani . Binucleate Rhizoctonia spp., which could not be identified to species using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques, were also recorded. Two R. zeae isolates were also obtained from stems with disease symptoms in Mochełek. R. solani was more often isolated from roots or stems with symptoms of true eyespot or fusarium foot rot. Most isolates of Rhizoctonia spp. were obtained at the milk ripe stage. A wheat-growing system and chemical control did not greatly affect the frequency of Rhizoctonia spp.
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR:
Grzegorz Lemańczyk
University of Technology and Life Sciences Department of Phytopathology and Molecular Mycology Kordeckiego 20, 85-225 Bydgoszcz, Poland
 
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