Forward angled spray: a method for improving the efficacy of herbicides
Akbar Aliverdi 1, A,C-D  
,   Mojtaba Zarei 1, A-C
More details
Hide details
Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran
A - Research concept and design; B - Collection and/or assembly of data; C - Data analysis and interpretation; D - Writing the article; E - Critical revision of the article; F - Final approval of article
Akbar Aliverdi   

Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, 65178-38695, Hamedan, Iran
Submission date: 2020-03-11
Acceptance date: 2020-05-19
Online publication date: 2020-08-12
Journal of Plant Protection Research 2020;60(3):275–283
It is challenging to obtain proper leaf wetting. An angled spray could overcome this impediment, but which spray angle is best suited to droplet size is still unknown. In an outdoor pot experiment, seven doses of cycloxydim and sethoxydim were sprayed with single-orifice standard, anti-drift, and air induction (having a fine, medium, and extremely coarse spray quality, respectively) flat fan nozzles, using spray angles of 10°, 20° backward, 0° (vertical), 10°, 20°, 30°, 40°, 50°, and 60° forward relative to the direction of nozzle trajectory on wild barley at the three-leaf stage. Generally, the forward angled spray was better than the backward angled spray. With a standard flat fan nozzle, the forward angling of spray from 0° to 20° reduced the ED50 from 60.24 to 39.85 g a.i. ⋅ ha−1 for cycloxydim and from 150.51 to 81.13 g a.i. ⋅ ha−1 for sethoxydim. With an anti-drift flat fan nozzle, the forward angling of spray from 0° to 30° reduced the ED50 from 72.57 to 50.20 g a.i. ⋅ ha−1 for cycloxydim and from 181.94 to 104.51 g a.i. ⋅ ha−1 for sethoxydim. With an air induction flat fan nozzle, the forward angling of spray from 0° to 40° reduced the ED50 from 102.96 to 45.52 g a.i. ⋅ ha−1 for cycloxydim and from 209.91 to 92.80 g a.i. ⋅ ha−1 for sethoxydim. More angling did not improve the efficacy of these herbicides. Our results revealed that larger spray droplets needed more spray angle than smaller spray droplets to achieve an equal control.
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
This work was funded by a grant from the Bu-Ali Sina University.
Aliverdi A. 2018. The selection of proper nozzle for spraying sethoxydim at two wind speeds to control winter wild oat (Avena sterilis ssp. ludoviciana). Journal of Plant Protection 32 (2): 299–306. DOI: https://doi.org/10.22067/jpp.v....
Aliverdi A., Ahmadvand G. 2018. The effect of nozzle type on clodinafop-propargyl potency against winter wild oat. Crop Protection 114: 113–119. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crop....
Aliverdi A., Karami S. 2020. The effect of type and size of single, twin, and triplet flat fan nozzles on the activity of cycloxydim against wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum Koch.). Journal of Plant Protection 33 (4): 465–474. DOI: https://doi.org/10.22067/jpp.v....
Aliverdi A., Rashed-Mohassel M.H., Zand E., Nassiri-Mahllati M. 2009. Increased foliar activity of clodinafop-propargyl and/or tribenuron-methyl by surfactants and their synergistic action on wild oat (Avena ludoviciana) and wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis). Weed Biology and Management 9: 292–299. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1445....
ASJ. 2018. Abba Spray Jet company. Product Catalogue, Nozzles and Accessories. Compact Fan Air-Tilt nozzle. Available on: http://www.asjnozzle.it/index.....
Chandrasena N.R., Sagar G.R. 1989. Fluazifop toxicity to quackgrass (Agropyron repens) as influenced by some application factors and site of application. Weed Science 37: 790–796. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S00431....
Cobb A.H., Reade J.P.H. 2010. Herbicides and Plant Physiology. 2nd ed. John Wiley and Sons Inc., UK.
Creech C.F., Henry R.S., Fritz B.K., Kruger G.R. 2015. Influence of herbicide active ingredient, nozzle type, orifice size, spray pressure, and carrier volume rate on spray droplet size characteristics. Weed Technology 29: 298–310. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1614/WT-D-1....
Foqu´e D., Nuyttens D. 2011. Effects of nozzle type and spray angle on spray deposition in ivy pot plants. Pest Management Science 67: 199–208. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.2....
Guoxiong C., Tamar K., Fahima T., Zhang F., Koral A.B. 2004. Differential patterns of germination and desiccation tolerance of mesic and xeric wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) in Israel. Journal of Arid Environments 56: 95–105. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-....
Hamidi R., Mazaheri D. 2012. Winter wheat growth and yield influenced by wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum Koch.) competition. Journal of Agricultural Science 4: 190–198. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5539/jas.v4....
Harr J., Guggenheim R., Sehulke G., Falk R.H. 1991. The Leaf Surface of Major Weeds. Sandoz Agro Ltd, Basel, Switzerland.
Heap I. 2020. The international herbicide-resistant weed database. Available on: www.weedscience.org.
Hess F.D., Foy C.L. 2000. Interaction of surfactants with plant cuticles. Weed Technology 14: 807–813. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1614/0890-0....
Huang J.Z., Campbell R.A., Studens J.A., Fleming R.A. 2000. Absorption and translocation of triclopyr ester in Populus tremuloides. Weed Science 48: 680–687. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1614/0043-1....
Hypro. 2013. Product Catalogue. Guardian AIR flat fan nozzle. Available on: https://www.agratech.co.uk/fil....
Jakob S.S., Rödder D., Engler J.O., Shaaf S., Özkan H., Blattner F.R., Kilian B. 2014. Evolutionary history of wild barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum) analyzed using multilocus sequence data and paleodistribution modeling. Genome Biology and Evolution 6: 685–702. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/gbe/ev....
Jensen P.K. 2007. Nonvertical spray angles optimize graminicide efficacy. Weed Technology 21: 1029–1034. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1614/WT-07-....
Jensen P.K. 2012. Increasing efficacy of graminicides with a forward angled spray. Crop Protection 32: 17–23. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crop....
Knezevic S.Z., Datta A., Scott J., Charvat L.D. 2010. Application timing and adjuvant type affected saflufenacil efficacy on selected broadleaf weeds. Crop Protection 29: 94–99. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crop....
Knoche M. 1994. Effect of droplet size and carrier volume on performance of foliage-applied herbicides. Crop Protection 13: 163–178. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0261-2....
MagnoJet. 2015. Product Catalogue. Super Turbo flat fan nozzle and Air Induction Super Turbo flat fan nozzle. Available on: http://www.magnojet.com.br/pro... [Accessed: 25 January 2020].
Meyer C.J., Norsworthy J.K., Kruger G.R., Barber T.L. 2016. Effect of nozzle selection and spray volume on droplet size and efficacy of Engenia tank-mix combinations. Weed Technology 30: 377–390. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1614/WT-D-1....
Miller P.C.H., Lane A.G., Wheeler H.C. 2002. Optimising fungicide use by varying application according to crop canopy characteristics in wheat. HGCA Project Report no. 277. Available on: https://ahdb.org.uk/optimising....
Nicholson P., Turner J.A., Jenkinson P., Jennings P., Stonehouse J., Nuttall M., Dring D., Weston G., Thomsett M. 2003. Maximising control with fungicides of Fusarium ear blight (FEB) in order to reduce toxin contamination of wheat. HGCA Project Report no. 297. Available on: https://ahdb.org.uk/maximising... [Accessed: 25 January, 2020].
Ozkan H.E., Paul P., Derksen R.C., Zhu H. 2012. Influence of application equipment on deposition of spray droplets in wheat canopy. Aspects of Applied Biology 114: 317–324. Available on: https://pubag.nal.usda.gov/dow... [Accessed: 25 January, 2020].
Penner D. 2000. Activator adjuvants. Weed Technology 14: 785–791. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1614/0890-0....
Powell E.S., Orson J.H., Parkin C.S., Miller P.C.H., Aldred D., Magan N. 2004. Improving the deposition and coverage of fungicides on ears to control Fusarium ear blight and reduce mycotoxin contamination of grain. Aspects of Applied Biology 71: 215–222. Available on: https://www.researchgate.net/p... [Accessed: 25 January 2020].
Ritz C., Baty F., Streibig J.C., Gerhard D. 2015. Dose-response analysis using R. PLoS ONE 10 (12): e0146021. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journa....
Ritz C., Cedergreen N., Jensen J.E., Streibig J.C. 2006. Relative potency in nonsimilar dose–response curves. Weed Science 54: 407–412. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1614/WS-05-....
Sasaki R.S., Teixeira M.M., Alvarenga C.B., Santiago H., Maciel C.F.S. 2013. Spectrum of droplets produced by use adjuvants. Idesia 31: 27–33. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S071....
Scoresby J.R., Nalewaja J.D. 1984. Herbicides in various size droplets and spray volumes. Proceedings of the 39th North Central Weed Control Conference 39: 60.
Shaw D.R., Morris W.H., Webster E.P., Smith D.B. 2000. Effects of spray volume and droplet size on herbicide deposition and common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium) control. Weed Technology 14: 321–326. DOI: https://doi.org/10.16140890-03....
Syngenta. 2020. Product Catalogue. Hypro® Defy 3D nozzle and Syngenta Potato Nozzle. Available on: https://www.syngenta.ie/applic... [Accessed: 25 January, 2020].
Wolf T.M., Peng G. 2011. Improving spray deposition on vertical structures: the role of nozzle angle, boom height, travel speed, and spray quality. Pest Technology 5: 67–72. Available on: https://www.cabdirect.org/cabd....
WSSA. 2010. Common and chemical names of herbicides approved by the Weed Science Society of America. Weed Science 58: 511–518. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1614/0043-1....