False jagged-chickweed (Lepyrodiclis holosteoides (C.A. Mey.) Fenzl ex Fisch. & C.A. Mey.) is an invasive weed species distributed in many regions of Iran. Scientific knowledge about the biology and ecology of false jagged-chickweed is rare. In a series of laboratory experiments, the effect of chilling treatments, potassium nitrate (KNO3), gibberellic acid (GA3), concentrations, temperature regimes, and sowing depths on seed germination and breaking seed dormancy of false jagged-chickweed was studied. In two field experiments the phenology of false jagged-chickweed and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) was also compared. Chilling treatment for 15 days, a KNO3 concentration of 30 µmolar and a GA3 concentration of 144 µmolar increased germination percentage and germination rate. However, chilling treatment for 15 days did not increase germination rate as well as the KNO3 and GA3 treatments. A quadratic polynomial model predicted that the optimum temperature giving the maximum germination percentage was 22⁰C. Seedlings emerged in a range of sowing depths from 0 to 8 cm, while no seedling emergence occurred at sowing depths greater than 10 cm. Based on a Gaussian model, the optimum sowing depth was predicted to be 3.9 cm. False jagged-chickweed required higher GDD for seedling emergence than winter wheat, while the flowering stage of false jagged-chickweed occurred earlier than winter wheat. Results achieved in the present study are of interest not only for studying other life cycle aspects of this species but also as basic information for developing management strategies.
The authors wish to thank Professor Asghar Heydari (AREEO) for reviewing the paper.
The study was supported by the Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO) with grant No. 14-16-16-9252, Tehran, Iran.
Kinga Matysiak
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
Andersson L., Milberg P. 1998. Variation in seed dormancy among mother plants, populations and years of seed collection. Seed Science Research 8: 29–38. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S09602....
Anonymous G.P. 2020. Global Plants. Available on: https://plants.jstor.org/compi....
Anonymous USDA. 2020. Natural Resources Conservation Service. Available on: https://plants.usda.gov/home/p... [Accessed: 20 February 2021].
Bakar B.H., Nabi L.N.A. 2003. Seed germination, seedling establishment and growth patterns of wrinklegrass (Ischaemum rugosum Salisb.). Weed Biology and Management 3: 8−14. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1445....
Begum M., Juraimi A.S., Amartalingam R., Bin Man A., Bin Syed Rastans S.O. 2006. The effects of sowing depth and flooding on the emergence, survival, and growth of Fimbristylis miliacea (L.) Vahl. Weed Biology and Management 6: 157−164. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1445....
Benvenuti S., MacChia M., Miele S. 2001. Quantitative analysis of emergence of seedlings from buried weed seeds with increasing soil depth. Weed Science 49: 528−535. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/404648....
Deihimfard R., Nazari S., Qorani Y. 2018. Estimation of cardinal temperatures of Lepyrodiclis holosteoides using regression models. Iranian Journal of Seed Science and Technology 7: 107−117. DOI: https://doi.org/10.22034/ijsst....
Dorado J., Fernández-Quintanilla C., Grundy A.C. 2009. Germination patterns in naturally chilled and nonchilled seeds of fierce thornapple (Datura ferox) and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti). Weed Science 57: 155−162. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1614/WS-08-....
Elahifard E., Derakhshan A. 2018. Asian spiderflower (Cleome viscosa) germination ecology in southern Iran. Weed Biology and Management 18: 110−117. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/wbm.12....
Foley M.E. 2004. Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) seed dormancy. Weed Science 52: 74−77. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1614/P2002-....
Forte C.T., Nunes U.R., Filho A.C., Galon L., Chechi L., Roso R., Menegat A.D., Rossetto E.D.O., Franceschetti M.B. 2019. Chemical and environmental factors driving germination of Solanum americanum seeds. Weed Biology and Management 19: 113−120. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/wbm.12....
Golmohammadzadeh S., Zaefarian F., Rezvani M. 2015. Effects of some chemical factors, prechilling treatments and interactions on the seed dormancy-breaking of two Papaver species. Weed Biology and Management 15: 11−19. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/wbm.12....
Guillemin J.-P., Chauvel B. 2011. Effects of the seed weight and burial depth on the seed behavior of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). Weed Biology and Management 11: 217−223. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111j.1445-....
Honarmand S.J., Nosratti I., Nazari K., Heidari H. 2016. Factors affecting the seed germination and seedling emergence of muskweed (Myagrum perfoliatum). Weed Biology and Management 16: 186−193. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/wbm.12....
Malik M.S., Norsworthy J.K., Riley M.B., Bridges W. 2010. Temperature and light requirements for wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum) germination over a 12-month period following maturation. Weed Science 58: 136−140. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1614/WS-09-....
Marshall E.J.P. 2019. Reflections on 14 years as Editor-in-Chief. Weed Research 59: 1−4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/wre.12....
McMaster G.S., Wilhelm W.W. 1997. Growing degree-days: one equation, two interpretations. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 87: 291−300. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S016....
Mighani F., Khordostan Z. 2019. Study of some environmental factors on seed germination of Lepyrodiclis holosteoides. Applied Biology 31: 127−138. DOI: https://doi.org/10.22051/jab.2....
Minbashi Moeini M. 2011. Preparation of weed species distribution of Iran wheat fields with GIS. Iranian Research Institute Plant Protection (IRIPP), 300 pp. (in Persian).
Mirtaheri S.M., Vazan S., Baghestani M.A., Paknejad F., Tohidloo G. 2015. Investigation effect of flooding and burial depth on germination and percentage of Lepyrodiclis holosteoides Fenzl. Biological Forum 7: 1840−1844.
Puttha R., Goggi A.S., Gleason M.L., Jogloy S., Kesmala T., Vorasoot N., Banterng P., Patanothai A. 2014. Pre-chill with gibberellic acid overcomes seed dormancy of Jerusalem artichoke. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 34: 869−878. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13593....
R Core Team. 2013. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. Available on: http://www.R-project.org/.
Rabeler R.K. 1992. Lepyrodiclis holosteoides (Caryophyllaceae), “New” to North America. Madroño 39: 240−242.
Ranal M.A., Santana D.Gd. 2006. How and why to measure the germination process? Brazilian Journal of Botany 29: 1−11.
Ranal M.A., Santana D.Gd., Ferreira W.R., Mendes-Rodrigues C. 2009. Calculating germination measurements and organizing spreadsheets. Brazilian Journal of Botany 32: 849−855.
Rezvani M., Zaefarian F. 2016. Hoary cress (Cardaria draba (L.) Desv.) seed germination ecology, longevity and seedling emergence. Plant Species Biology 31: 280−287. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1442-1....
Rossini Oliva S., Leidi E.O., Valdés B. 2009. Germination responses of Erica andevalensis to different chemical and physical treatments. Ecological Research 24: 655. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11284....
Salazar-Gutierrez M., Johnson J., Chaves-Cordoba B., Hoogenboom G. 2013. Relationship of base temperature to development of winter wheat. International Journal of Plant Protection 7: 741−762.
Sarhaddi M., Rastgoo M., Ezadi Darbandi E., Ghanbari A., Baghestani M. 2019. The study of dormancy, germination and emergence biological aspects of jagged-chickweed (Lepyrodiclis holosteoides) seeds. Iranian Journal of Weed Science 15: 77−95. DOI: https://doi.org/10.22092/ijws.....
Tester M., Morris C. 2006. The penetration of light into soil. Plant, Cell & Environment 10: 281−286. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365....
Wei S., Zhang C., Chen X., Li X., Sui B., Huang H., Cui H., Liu Y., Zhang M., Guo F. 2010. Rapid and effective methods for breaking seed dormancy in buffalobur (Solanum rostratum). Weed Science 58: 141−146. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1614/WS-D-0....
Yaghoubi S., Aghaalikhani M., Ghelavand M., Zand E. 2011. Evaluation of important growth parameters of Lepyrodiclis (Lepyrodiclis holosteoides Fenzl.) under different light densities and nitrogen rates. Iranian Journal of Weed Science 7: 31−45.
Zand E., Nezamabadi N., Baghestani M.A., Shimi P., Mousavi S.K. 2017. A Guide to Chemical Control of Win Iran. JDM Press, Mashhad, Iran, 216 pp.