Higher induction of defense enzymes and cell wall reinforcement in maize by root associated bacteria for better protection against Aspergillus niger
Yachana Jha 1, A  
More details
Hide details
Department of Biotechnology, Natubhai V. Patel College of Pure and Applied Sciences, Anand, India
A - Research concept and design; B - Collection and/or assembly of data; C - Data analysis and interpretation; D - Writing the article; E - Critical revision of the article; F - Final approval of article
Yachana Jha   

Department of Biotechnology, Natubhai V. Patel College of Pure and Applied Sciences, Anand, India
Submission date: 2019-01-11
Acceptance date: 2019-08-22
Online publication date: 2019-10-07
Journal of Plant Protection Research 2019;59(3):341–349
Root associated bacteria were isolated from Suaeda nudiflora and two isolates were selected for this study: rhizospheric Bacillus megaterium and endophytic Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These isolates were inoculated into maize variety Narmada Moti during its germination. TTC (2, 3, 5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) staining was used to confirm the association of the isolates with the maize root. The effects of these root associated bacteria were tested alone and in combinations for cell wall reinforcement and the induction of defense enzymes such as phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and β-1,3-glucanase in the presence of fungal pathogen Aspergillus niger in maize. The results indicated that the rhizospheric bacteria had a greater fight response to fungal infection than the endophhytic bacteria due to cell wall lignification as well as the rapid induction of higher concentrations of defense related enzymes.
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
Choudhary D.K., Prakash A., Johri B.N. 2008. Induced systemic resistance (ISR) in plants: mechanism of action. Indian Journal of Microbiology 47 (4): 289–297. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12088....
Damalas C.A., Eleftherohorinos I.G. 2011. Pesticide exposure, safety issues, and risk assessment indicators. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 8 (5): 1402–1419. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph....
Delshadi S., Ebrahimi M., Shirmohammadi E. 2017. Influence of plant-growth-promoting bacteria on germination, growth and nutrients’ uptake of Onobrychis sativa L. under drought stress. Journal of Plant Interactions 12 (1): 200–208. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/174291....
Gray E.J., Smith D.L. 2005. Intracellular and extracellular PGPR: Commonalities and distinctions in the plant-bacterium signaling processes. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 37 (3): 395–412. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soil....
Duan C., Yu J., Jianyu B., Zhu Z., Wang X. 2014. Induced defense responses in rice plants against small brown plant hopper infestation. Crop Journal 2 (3): 55–62. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cj.2....
Hotterbeekx A., Kumar-Singh S., Goossens H., Malhotra-Kumar S. 2017. In vivo and in vitro interactions between Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus spp. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology 7: 106. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.....
Jha Y. 2017. Cell water content and lignification in maize regulated by rhizobacteria under salinity. Brazilian Journal of Biology 4 (7): 9–18. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21472/bjbs.....
Jha Y., Subramanian R.B. 2014. Characterization of root-associated bacteria from paddy and its growth-promotion efficacy. 3Biotech 4 (3): 325–330. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13205....
Jha Y., Subramanian R.B. 2016. Rhizobacteria enhance oil content and physiological status of Hyptis suaveolens under salinity stress. Rhizosphere 1: 33–35. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rhis....
Jha Y. 2018. Induction of anatomical, enzymatic, and molecular events in maize by PGPR under biotic stress. p. 125–141. In: “Role of Rhizospheric Microbes in Soil” (Meena V., ed). Springer, Singapore, 398 pp.
Kováčik J., Klejdus B. 2008. Dynamics of phenolic acids and lignin accumulation in metal-treated Matricaria chamomilla roots. Plant Cell Reports 27 (3): 605–615. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00299....
Levy A., Guenoune-Gelbart D., Epel B.L. 2007. β-1,3-Glucanases plasmodesmal gate kkeepers for intercellular communication. Plant Signaling and Behavior 2 (5): 404–407.
Malinovsky F.G., Fangel J.U., Willats W.G.T. 2014. The role of the cell wall in plant immunity. Frontiers in Plant Science 5: 178. DOI: https://doi.org10.3389/fpls.20....
Nakano J.M., Meshitsuka G. 1992. The detection of lignin. p. 23–61. In: Methods in Lignin Chemistry (Lin S.Y., Dence C.W., eds.). Springer, Berlin.
Nie P., Li X., Wang S., Guo J., Zhao H., Niu D. 2017. Induced systemic resistance against Botrytis cinerea by Bacillus cereus AR156 through a JA/ET- and NPR1-dependent signaling pathway and activates PAMP-triggered immunity in Arabidopsis. Frontiers in Plant Science 8: 238. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2....
Pastor V., Luna E., Mauch-Mani B., Ton J., Flors V. 2013. Primed plants do not forget. Environmental and Experimental Botany 94: 46–56. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enve....
Pieterse C.M., Zamioudis C., Berendsen R.L., Weller D.M., Van Wees S.C., Bakker P.A. 2014. Induced systemic resistance by beneficial microbes. Annual Review of Phytopathology 52: 347–375.
Rahman A., Wallis C.M., Uddin U. 2015. Silicon-induced systemic defense responses in perennial ryegrass against infection by Magnaporthe oryzae. Phytopathology 105 (6): 748–757. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1094/phyto-....
Shi Y., Niu K., Huang B., Liu W., Ma A. 2017. Transcriptional responses of creeping bentgrass to 2,3-butanediol, a bacterial volatile compound (BVC) analogue. Molecules 22: 1318. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/molecu....
Sriram P.P., Shin Y.C., Park C.S., Chung Y.R. 1999. Biological control of fusarium wilts of cucumber by chitinolytic bacteria. Phytopathology 89 (1): 92–99. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1094/phyto.....
Sudisha J., Sharathchandra R.G., Amruthesh K.N., Kumar A., Shetty H.S. 2012. Pathogenesis related proteins in plant defense response. p. 379–403. In: “Plant Defence: Biological Control” (Mérillon J., Ramawat K., eds). Progress in Biological Control. Vol. 12. Springer, Dordrecht, 403 pp.
Turra D., El Ghalid M., Rossi F., Di Pietro A. 2015. Fungal pathogen uses sex pheromone receptor for chemotropic sensing of host plant signals. Nature 527 (7579): 521–524. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/nature....
Vacheron J., Desbrosses G., Bouffaud M.L., Touraine B., Moënne-Loccoz Y., Muller D., Legendre L., Wisniewski-Dyé F., Prigent-Combaret C. 2013. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and root system functioning. Frontiers in Plant Science 4: 1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2....
van Loon L.C. 2007. Plant responses to plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. New Perspectives and Approaches in Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Research 119: 243–254. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-....