The ability of parasitoids in locating hosts determines their success in suppressing the pest population. Chemical stimuli emitted from food products and hosts provoke the searching behavior of parasitoids. Anisopteromalus calandrae (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is a generalist idiobiont ectoparasitoid of coleopteran pests in stored products. In the current study, the behavioral responses of A. calandrae females were evaluated regarding host food and different life stages of the host, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), using a Y-tube olfactometer. The parasitoid was offered uninfested chickpea kernels, damaged chickpea without larvae of C. maculatus, damaged chickpea with preferred stage (4th instar) larvae of C. maculatus, uninfested chickpea + C. maculatus adults, and eggs of C. maculatus on chickpea. In another test, the preference of A. calandrae for either damaged chickpea without larva of C. maculatus or damaged chickpea with non-preferred stage (1st instar) larvae of C. maculatus was studied. The results showed that the females did not prefer uninfested chickpea kernels and adults of C. maculatus. However, they were attracted to damaged kernels with or without larvae, and the kernels containing eggs of C. maculatus. When the female parasitoids had a choice between damaged chickpea without larva of C. maculatus and damaged chickpea with 1st instar larva, they did not prefer one over the other. The results of this investigation can be helpful for using A. calandrae as a biological control agent in stored products.
The authors would like to thank Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, Iran, for the financial support of this research project.
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
Belda C., Riudavets J. 2010. Attraction of the parasitoid Anisopteromalus calandrae (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to odors from grain and stored product pests in a Y-tube olfactometer. Biological Control 54 (1): 29–34. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bioc....
Bender E., Jahnke S.M., Köhler A. 2020. Chemotaxic responses of Anisopteromalus calandrae (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to odors of larvae, pupae, and the diet of Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Ptinidae). Neotropical Entomology 49: 171–178. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13744....
Brower J.H., Smith L., Vail P.V., Flinn P.W. 1996. Biological control. p. 223–286. In: “Integrated Management of Insects in Stored Products” (B. Subramanyam, D.W. Hagstrum, eds.). Marcel Dekker, New York, USA.
Conti E., Colazza S. 2012. Chemical ecology of egg parasitoids associated with true bugs. Psyche: A Journal of Entomology 2012: 1–11. DOI: https://doi:10.1155/2012/65101....
Cournoyer M., Boivin G. 2004. Infochemical-mediated preference behavior of the parasitoid Microctonus hyperodae when searching for its adult weevil hosts. Entomologia Experimentalis Applicata 112 (2): 117–124. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0013....
Dicke M., Baldwin I.T. 2010. The evolutionary context for herbivore-induced plant volatiles: beyond the ‘cry for help’. Trends in Plant Science 15 (3): 167–175. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tpla....
El-Aziz S.E.A. 2011. Control strategies of stored product pests. Journal of Entomology 8 (2): 101–122. DOI: 10.3923/je.2011.101.122.
Germinara G.S., De Cristofaro A., Rotundo G. 2009. Antennal olfactory responses to individual cereal volatiles in Theocolax elegans (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Journal of Stored Products Research 45 (3): 195–200. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jspr....
Germinara G.S., De Cristofaro A., Rotundo G. 2016. Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of Theocolax elegans (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to cereal grain volatiles. BioMed Research International 2016: 1–8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/5....
Gorham J.R. 1979. The significance for human health of insects in food. Annual Review of Entomology 24 (1): 209–224.
Jembere B., Ngi-Song A.J., Overholt W. 2003. Olfactory responses of Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) to target and non-target Lepidoptera and their host plants. Biological Control 28 (3): 360–367. DOI: 10.1016/S1049-9644(03)00092-6.
Lee S., Peterson C.J., Coats J.R. 2003. Fumigation toxicity of monoterpenoids to several stored product insects. Journal of Stored Products Research 39 (1): 77–85. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-....
Lo Pinto M., Wajnberg E., Colazza S., Curty C., Fauvergue X. 2004. Olfactory response of two aphid parasitoids, Lysiphlebus testaceipes and Aphidius colemani, to aphid-infested plants from a distance. Entomologia Experimantalis et Applicata 110 (2): 159–164. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0013....
Niedermayer S., Krogmann L., Steidle J.L. 2016. Lost in space? Host-finding ability of the parasitoids Lariophagus distinguendus and Anisopteromalus calandrae in empty grain storage facilities to control residual pest populations. Biocontrol 61 (4): 379–386. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10526....
Nordlund D.A., Lewis W.J., Altieri M.A. 1988. Influences of plant-produced allelochemicals on the host/prey selection behavior of entomophagous insects. p. 65–90. In: “Novel Aspects of Insect–Plant Interactions” (P. Barbosa, D.K. Letourneau, eds.). John Wiley and Sons, USA.
Powell W., Pennacchio F., Poppy G.M., Tremblay E. 1998. Strategies involved in the location of hosts by the parasitoid Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae). Biological Control 11 (2): 104–112. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1006/bcon.1....
Rajendran S., Sriranjini V. 2008. Plant products as fumigants for stored-product insect control. Journal of Stored Products Research 44 (2): 126–135. DOI: 0.1016/j.jspr.2007.08.003.
Reed H.C., Tan S.H., Haapanen K., Killmon M., Reed D.K., Elliott N.C. 1995. Olfactory responses of the parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) to odor of plants, aphids, and plant-aphid complexes. Journal of Chemical Ecology 21 (4): 407–418. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF0203....
Schöller M., Flinn P.W., Grieshop M.J., Zdarkova E. 2006. Biological control of stored product pests. p. 67–87. In: “Insect Management for Food Storage and Processing” (J.W. Heaps, ed.). 2nd AACC International, Minesota, USA.
Schöller M., Prozell S., Suma P., Russo A. 2018. Biological control of stored-product insects. p. 183–209. In: “Recent Avances in Stored Product Protection” (C.G. Athanassiou, F.H. Arthur, eds.). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-....
Shin S.S., Chun Y.S., Ryoo M.I. 1994. Functional and numerical responses of Anisopteromalus calandrae and Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to the various densities of an alternative host, Callosobruchus chinensis. Korean Journal of Entomology 24: 199–206.
Sitthichaiyakul S., Amornsak W. 2017. Host-substrate preference of Theocolax elegans (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a larval parasitoid of the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Agricultural and Natural Resources 51 (1): 36–39. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anre....
Steidle J.L., Schöller M. 1997. Olfactory host location and learning in the granary weevil parasitoid Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Journal of Insect Behaviour 10 (3): 331–342. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF0276....
Steidle J.L. 2000. Host recognition cues of the granary weevil parasitoid Lariophagus distinguendus. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 95 (2): 185–192. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1570....
Steidle J.L., Schöller M. 2002. Fecundity and ability of the parasitoid Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to find larvae of the granary weevil Sitophilus granarius (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in bulk grain. Journal of Stored Products Research 38 (1): 43–53. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-....
Steidle J.L., Steppuhn A., Reinhard J. 2001. Volatile cues from different host complexes used for host location by the generalist parasitoid Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Basic and Applied Ecology 2 (1): 45–51. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1078/1439-1....
Steiner S., Steidle J.L., Ruther J. 2007. Host-associated kairomones used for habitat orientation in the parasitoid Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Journal of Stored Products Research 43 (4): 587–593. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jspr....
Tinzaara W., Gold C.S., Dicke M., Van Huis A. 2005. Olfactory responses of banana weevil predators to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and synthetic pheromone. Journal of Chemical Ecology 31 (7): 1537–1553. DOI: 10.1007/s10886-005-5796-x.
Turlings T.C., Bernasconi M., Bertossa R., Bigler F., Caloz G., Dorn S. 1998. The induction of volatile emissions in maize by three herbivore species with different feeding habits: possible consequences for their natural enemies. Biological Control 11 (2): 122–129. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1006/bcon.1....