Outbreaks and natural viral epizootics of the satin moth Leucoma salicis L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)
More details
Hide details
Institute of Plant Protection Władysława Węgorka 20, 60-318 Poznań, Poland
Jadwiga Ziemnicka
Institute of Plant Protection Władysława Węgorka 20, 60-318 Poznań, Poland
Journal of Plant Protection Research 2008;48(1):23–39
Long standing systematic observations on Leucoma salicis populations revealed numerous occurrences of outbreaks and natural viral epizootics. Number of insects appearing in outbreaks at peak density ranged from 450 to 3250 on 10 examined poplar trees (up to 2 m height). Abundance of virus within population of such a high density increased along with an increase of insect population. Populations with high density and high level of nucleopolyhedrovirus (LesaMNPV) and cypovirus did not last long and collapsed suddenly. Outbreaks of the satin moth were favored by warm and humid conditions while warm and dry spring, summer months were conducive to viral epizootic. Most outbreaks happened in the years with mean temperatures of spring and summer months above 15°C and 50–60% RH while, most epizootics were recorded at similar temperature conditions but lower RH, i.e. 40–50%.
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
Abraham G. 1996. The mass appearance of willow tussock moth (Stilpnotia salicis L) in Gyor – Sopron County. Novenyvedelem 32 (5): 247–248.
Arru G.M. 1975. Annotated list of the most important insects injurious to the cultivation of poplar in Italy. Cellulosa-e-carta 26 (11): 47–50.
Avtzis N.D. 1990. Development of Leucoma salicis (L.)(Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) on Populus alba (L.) and poplar clone I-214. Entomologica-Hellenica 8: 25–27.
Chen L.S. 1984. A note on nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Stilpnotia salicis. Forest Science and Technology Linye Keji Tongxun 12: 27–28.
Chen Y.X., Zhang X.T., Zhou F.C., Yang Y.S., Gao Y.G., Zhao W.Y. 1990. Studies on damage index of five foliar pests of poplars. Forest Pest and Disease 1: 17–20.
Chłodny J. 1980. Wpływ na entomofaunę leśną. p. 242–259. W: „Siarka w biosferze” (J. Siuta, M. Rejman-Czajkowska wyd.). PWRiL, Warszawa.
Clarke L.J., Pardy K.E. 1971. Biological control of the satin moth in Newfoundland. Bi-month. Res. Note, Can. Fish. For. 26: 36–37.
Cobanoglu S. 1992. Studies on the distribution and biology of the satin moth, Leucoma salicis (L.)(Lep., Lymantriidae) harmful to poplar trees in Edirne province. p. 571–583. Proceedings of the Second Turkish National Congress of Entomology. Izmir, Turkey, Ege Universitesi.
De Hoog G.S. 1972. The genera Beauveria, Isaria, Tritirachium and Acrodontium. Stud. Mycol. 1: 1–44.
Dondikov N.M. 1974. Stilpnotia salicis in the Altai region. [in Russian]. Zashch. Rast. 9: 47.
Doom D. 1979. Damage by insects and mites to trees and shrubs in 1978. Nederlands Bosbouw Tijdschrift 51 (5/6): 149–158.
Drea J.J., Gruber F., Fuester R.W., Mercadier G., Hoyer H. 1977. Observations on Hexamermis albicans (Nematoda: Mermithidae) recovered from Lymantria dispar and Stilpnotia salicis (Lep.: Lymantriidae) in West Germany and Austria. Entomophaga 22 (2): 141–146.
Ĕvlachova A.A., Švecova O.J. 1964. Metody rozpoznavanija bolezniej nasiekomych. [in Russian]. Ministerstwo Selskovo Chozjajstwa SSSR: 32–33.
Furniss R.L. 1939. Insects attacking forest products and shade trees in Washington and Oregon in 1937. Proc. Ent. Soc. Brit. Columbia 25: 5–8.
Galkin G.J. 1975. Outbreaks of Dendrolimus sibericus and solar activity. [in Russian]. Lesn. Khoz. 8: 83–85.
Gams W. 1971. Cephalosporium – artige Schimmelpilze (Hyphomycetes). G. Fisher. Stuttgart, 261 pp.
Grigorova R. 1962. On nuclear polyhedrosis of the satin moth (Stilpnotia salicis L.). Comptes Rendus de l’Academie Bulgarie des Sciences 15 (1): 85–88.
Grijpma P.J. 1989. Overview of research on Lymantriids in Eastern and Western Europe. p. 21–49. In: Proceedings „Lymantriidae: A Comparison of Features of New and Old World Tussock Moth” (W.E. Wallner and K.A. McManus, eds.). USDA, NEFS. Gen. Tech. Report NE-123, Broomal, (US), 554 pp.
Grijpma P., Persoons C.J., Peters D., Vlak J.M. 1986. Biological control of satin moth with pheromones and baculoviruses. Project Report 1985. European Economic Community; Rand D Programme: Wood as a renewable row material., Wageningen, Dorschkamp Rapport 443, 19 pp.
Grijpma P., Van Lenteren J.C., 1988. Telenomus nitidulus (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae), egg parasite of the satin moth Leucoma salicis (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). In: „Trichogramma and Other Egg Parasites”. Inst. Nat. Res. Agron., Paris. Les Colloques de l’INRA 43: 181–189.
Gromova A.A. 1980. The willow lymantriid. [in Russian]. Zashch. Rast. 9: 50.
Harrigan W.F., McCance M.E. 1966. Laboratory methods in microbiology. Academic Press London and New York, 362 pp.
Huertos R.M., Templado J. 1958. Un virus poliedrico en Stilnotia salicis (L.)(Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae)[in Spanish]. Microbiologia Española 11: 93–98.
Jahn E., Sinreich A. 1965. Beobachtungen zur Massen vermehrung des Weidenoder Pappelspinners, Stilpnotia salicis L. in Windschutzstreifen im Seewinkel des Burgenlandes in den Jahren 1962 und 1963, Anz. Schädlingskunde 38: 17–23.
Kailidis D.S. 1964. Epidemic tes Stilpnotia salicis L. (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae) kata to 1964 ton aeykonen Makedonia. Dasika Chron. Athenai 6 (11/12): 41–50.
Kolomiec N.G. 1971. Estestvennye vragi ivovoj volnjanki v zapadnosibirskoj nizmennosti. [in Russian]. Izv. Sib.Otd. Akad. Nauk. SSSR Biol. Nauk 10 (2): 102–109.
Kuševska M. 1972. The influence of ecological conditions on the occurrence and development of polyhedrosis in larvae of Stilpnotia salicis L. Fragmenta Balcanica 9 (2): 9–19.
Lameris A.M.C., Ziemnicka J., Peters D., Grijpma P., Vlak J.M. 1985. Potential of baculoviruses for control of the satin moth, Leucoma salicis L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). Med. Fac Landbouww. Rijksuniv. Gent. 50 (2a): 431–439.
Lejeune R.R., Silver G.T. 1961. Parasites and hyperparasites of the satin moth, Stilpnotia salicis Linnaeus, (Lymantriidae) in British Columbia. Canad. Entomol. 93 (6): 456–467.
Lipa J.J. 1967. Zarys Patologii Owadów. PWRiL, Warszawa, 364 pp.
Lipa J.J. 1996. Present status of noxious Lymantriidae in Europa and Poland. p.127–136. In: Proceedings of the International Conference „Integrated Management of Forest Lymantriidae” March 27–29,1996. Warsaw-Sękocin, Poland.
Lipa J.J., Głowacka B. 1996. Nun moth (Lymantria monacha L.) in Europe and Poland. p. 138–158. In: Proceed. Annual Gypsy Moth Review, Nov. 5–8, 1995, Traverse City, USA.
Lipa J.J., Kolk A. 1995. The recent situation of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) and other lymantriids in Poland. OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 25: 623–629.
Lipa J.J., Ziemnicka J. 1996. Spiroplasma and microsporidian infections in populations of Leucoma salicis L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) in Poland. p.123–126. In: Proceedings of International Conference „Integrated Management of Forest Lymantriidae”. 27–29 March 1996, Warsaw–Sękocin, Poland.
Lipa J.J., Ziemnicka J., Gazecka B., Korytek L. 1988. A newly recorded Spiroplasma infection in Stilpnotia salicis L. (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae). Prace Nauk. Inst. Ochr. Roślin 30 (1–2): 15–19.
Luitjes J. 1973. The effect of defoliation by Leucoma salicis on the growth of poplar. [in Dutch]. Ned. Bosb. Tijdschr. 45 (2): 45–53.
Maksymov J.K. 1978. Die Massenvermehrung des Pappelspinners Stilpnotia salicis L. (Lep., Lymantriidae) in der Orbe-Ebene. Schweiz. Z. Forstw., 129, 5: 424–430.
Marikovskij P.N. 1977. A mass outbreak of the satin moth. [in Russian]. Zashch. Rast. 9: 29.
Migula P. 1984. Wrażliwość niektórych Lepidoptera na zanieczyszczenia powietrza gazami i pyłami przemysłowymi. [in Polish]. Abstr. XVI Congr. Pol. Physiol. Soc., Katowice, p. 251.
Migula P. 1985. Wrażliwość wybranych gatunków owadów na skażenia powietrza gazami i pyłami przemysłowymi oraz tolerancja przez nie termicznych zmian środowiska. [in Polish]. Prace Nauk. Uniw. Śląsk. Katowice 765, 115 pp.
Nef L. 1975. Etude ecologique des pontes de Stilpnotia (=Leucoma) salicis L. Ann. Soc. Roy. Zool. Belg. 105: 129–146.
Nef L. 1976. Etude ecologique de Telenomus nitidulus, parasite des oeufs de Stilpnotia (Leucoma) salicis L. J. Plant Dis. Protect. 83: 109–119.
Nikiforov G.M. 1979. Leucoma salicis, a pest of the tayga forests in the Tomsk region. [in Russian]. Lesn. Khoz. 8: 66–67.
Obozov A.N. 1968. The white satin moth. [in Russian]. Zashch. Rast.13 (9): 46.
Ogarkov B.N., Ogarkova G.R. 1979. Fungal epizootics of insect pests in the Irkutsk region. Mikol. Fitopatol. 13 (1): 10–12.
Orlovskaya E.V. 1968. Vospriimčivost nekotorych vidov dendrofilnych česeukrylych k rozličnym virusam. Zashch. Lesa 1 (115): 170–182.
Ortiz E., Templado J. 1973. The chromosomes of four species of Lymantriidae (Lepidoptera). Eos. 49 (1/4): 225–232.
Poinar G.O. 1975. Entomogenous nematodes. A manual and host list of insect-nematode associations. E.J. Brill, Leiden, Netherlands, 317 pp.
Price P.W., Rathcke B.J., Gentry D.A. 1974. Lead in terrestrial arthropods: evidence for biological concentration. Environ. Entomol. 3: 370–372.
Reeks W.A., Smith C.C. 1956. The satin moth, Stilpnotia salicis (L.), in the Maritime Provinces and observations on its control by parasites and spraying. Can. Ent. 88: 565–579.
Samson R.A. 1974. Paecilomyces and some allied Hyphomycetes. Stud. Mycol. 6: 1–119.
Schnaiderowa J. 1959. Z badań nad białką wierzbówką. [in Polish]. Prace Inst. Bad. Leśn. 189: 19–62.
Schoenherr J. 1989. Outbreak characteristics of Lymantriids. p. 171–181. In: „Proceedings, Lymantriidae: A Comparison of Features of New and Old World Tussock Moths” (W.E. Wallner, K.A. McManus, eds.) USDA, NEFS. Gen. Tech. Report NE-123, Broomal (US), 554 pp.
Serafimovski A. 1972. Biological and ecological studies of the satin moth (Stilpnotia salicis L.). Godisnik, Sumarski Instytut – Skopje 7: 5–105.
Schaefer P.W. 1989. Diversity in form, function, behaviour, and ecology: an overview of the Lymantriidae (Lepidoptera) of the World. p.1–19. In: Proceedings „Lymantriidae: A Comparison of Features of New and Old World Tussock Moths” (W.E. Wallner and K.A. McManus, eds). USDA, NEFS. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-123, Broomal, (US), 554 pp.
Sidor C. 1976. Diseases caused by microorganismus in some species of Lymantriidae in Yugoslavia and their importance to the entomofauna. [in Serbian]. Archiv. Bioloskih Nauke 28 (3/4): 127–137.
Sidor C., Zamola B., Kajfez J.F. 1978. Polyhedral viral disease of Leucoma salicis L. in Voivodina, Yugoslavia. [in Serbian]. Archiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju 29: 219–233.
Sirota Y., Ueda K., Kuwana Y., Komai F. 1976. Biological studies on Leucoma candida (Staudinger)(Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae) in Japan. I. Biology and life history. Kontyu. 44 (1): 85–92.
Skatula U. 1985. Untersuchungen zur Wirkung eines Kernpolyhedrevirus aus Leucoma salicis (Lep., Lymantriidae) auf einige Lymantriiden-Arten. Anz. Für Schaendlings.Phlanzenschutz, Umweltschutz 58: 41–47.
Teodorescu J. 1980. Contribution of the oophagus Scelionids (Proctotrupoidea–Scelionidae) to the limitation of attack by some defoliating Lepidoptera. [in Roumanian]. Stud. Cercet. Biol., Biol. Anim. 32 (2): 177–180.
Villemant C. 1980. Influence de la pollution atmospherique sur les microlepidopteres du pin eu foret du Roumaire (Seine-Maritime). Acta Ecol. 1 (4): 291–306.
Wagner T.L., Leonard D.E. 1979. The effects of parental and progeny diet on development, weight gain and survival of prediapause larvae of satin moth, Leucoma salicis (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). Can. Ent. 111: 721–729.
Wagner T.L., Leonard D.E. 1980. Mortality factors of satin moth Leucoma salicis (Lep.: Lymantriidae) in aspen forests in Maine. Entomophaga 25: 7–16.
Wallner W.E. 1988. An overview of pest Lymantriids of North America. p. 65–80. In: Proceedings, Lymantriidae: A Comparison of Features of New and Old World Tussock Moths” (W.E. Wallner and K.A. McManus, eds.). USDA, NEFS. Gen. Tech. Report NE-123, Broomal (US), 554 pp.
Weiser J., Ludvik J., Veber J. 1954. Polyedrie bekyne vbrově (Stilpnotia salicis L., Lepidoptera). Zool. Entomol. Listy 4: 238–242.
Yamaguchi K. 1977. Regenaration of the midgut epithelial cells in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, infected with the cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus. J. Sericult. Sci. Japan 46: 179–180.
Zakharieva A. 1983a. The phenology of Stilpnotia salicis in the Sofia and Burgas regions. [in Bulgarian]. Gorsko-Stopanstvo 39: 35–37.
Zakharieva A. 1983b. Species composition and role of parasites of L. in Bulgaria. [in Bulgarian]. Nauchni Tr. Vissh Lesotekh. Inst. Sofiya, Ozelenyavane 27/28: 107–113.
Zakharieva-Pentcheva A., Georgiev G.T. 1997. Parasitoids of the satin moth Stilpnotia salicis (L.)(Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae) in Bulgaria. [in Bulgarian]. Bolle. Zool. Agr. Bach. 29 (1): 81–90.
Ziemnicka J. 1976a. Białka wierzbówka – groźny szkodnik wierzb i topól. [in Polish]. Ochrona Roślin 5: 17–18.
Ziemnicka J. 1976b. A note on the cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus of the satin moth Stilpnotia salicis L. (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae). Bull. Acad. Pol. Sci., Biol. Cl. V. 24 (8): 461–462.
Ziemnicka J. 1981. Studies on nuclear and cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses of the satin moth (Stilpnotia salicis L.)(Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae). Prace Nauk. Inst. Ochr. Roślin 23 (1): 75–142.
Ziemnicka J., Hilszczański J., Bystrowski C. 1996. Occurence of viruses and parasitoids in natural populations of satin moth Stilpnotia salicis L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). p. 127–136. In: Proceedings of International Conference „Integrated Management of Forest Lymantriidae” 27–29 March 1996, Warsaw – Sękocin, Poland.
Ziemnicka J., Sosnowska D. 1996. Entomopathogenic fungi in population of the satin moth Stilpnotia salicis L. J. Plant Prot. Res. 37 (1/2): 128–137.