Some effects of an EC formulation of azadirachtin on important cotton pests in Senegal
More details
Hide details
73-75 Woodbine Avenue Newark, NJ 07106, USA
George Ekukole
73-75 Woodbine Avenue Newark, NJ 07106, USA
Journal of Plant Protection Research 2006;46(4):313–323
Laboratory studies were carried out on the effects of an emulsifiable concentrate (EC) formulation of Azadirachtin (AZ) (6 g a.s./l EC) on four major cotton pests in Senegal: Spodoptera littoralis Boisduval (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Helicoverpa armigera Hϋbner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae) and Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). In both S. littoralis (SL) and H. armigera (HA), larval weight loss was observed 48 h after treatment. Appreciable weight gain was only observed in SL larvae at dosages of 0.05 and 0.1 g a.s. /l AZ, 72 h after treatment. In both SL and HA, there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the control larvae and those treated with 0.1 to 1.5 g a.s. /l AZ. At a dosage of 1.5 g a.s./l, AZ caused 60% mortality in SL and 0% mortality in HA, 72 h after treatment. The treatment with AZ at dosages of 0.05 and 1.5 g a.s./l resulted in 50 and 30% malformation in SL and HA pupae respectively. The duration of development from the IV instar larva to pupa in both lepidopterans increased progressively with AZ dosage. SL was more susceptible to AZ than HA. No growth disrupting effects were observed in A. gossypii (AG) and T. urticae (TU) where EC50 values of 1.49 and 1.36 g a.s./l AZ respectively were obtained. The implications of the effects of AZ on further field trials against cotton pests are discussed.
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
Adler V.E., Uebel E.C. 1987. Effects of Margosan-O on six species of cockroaches (Orthoptera: Blattidae & Blattelidae). Proceeding of the Third International Neem Conference, Nairobi, Kenya: 387–392.
Angelini M. 1989. Activité biologique d’une formulation à base d’Azadirachtine (Margosan-O) à l’égard de Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Travail de fin d’études, Faculté des Sciences Agronomiques de Gembloux, Belgique, 92 pp.
Couilloud R., Giret M. 1978. Améliorations possibles dans la conduite de l’élevage d’Heliothis armigera. Note No. 7 – LENI/CIRAD Montpellier, France, 19 pp.
Couilloud R., Giret M. 1980a. Multiplication d’Heliothis armigera Hbn. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): améliorations possibles grace à l’adoption d’une technique l’élevage en groupe des chenilles. Cot. Fib. Trop. 35: 217–224.
Couilloud R., Giret M. 1980b. Spodoptera littoralis Boisd. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): influence de l’espace l’élevage au cours de la vie larvaire sur le rendement en chrysalides et en adultes. Cot. Fib. Trop. 35: 369–376.
Ekukole G. 1991. Bionomics and control of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, in north Cameroon. Ph. D. Thesis, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria, 173 pp.
Ekukole G., Mbaye B. 1996a. Protocoles pour des tests in vitro des formulations d’Azadirachtine, BPMC et isoprocarbe. Station d’Expérimentation de SENCHIM au CDH Cambérène, Dakar, Senegal, non publié, 5 pp.
Ekukole G., Mbaye B. 1996b. Rapport sur l’effet in vitro d’Azadirachtine sur Spodoptera littoralis, Helicoverpa armigera, Aphis gossypii et Tetranychus sp. Station d’Expérimentation de SENCHIM au CDH Cambérène, Dakar, Senegal, 15 pp.
Ekukole G. 1996. Prey preference in Paragus borbonicus Macquart (Diptera: Syrphidae) larvae and relationship with Acantholepsis capensis (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), an ant attending Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae). J. Afr. Zool. 110: 195–202.
Ekukole G. 1997. Biological control as a component of IPM on cotton in Sub-Saharan French-Speaking Africa. Procceding of the CTA/IAR/IIBC Seminar on Integrating Biological Control and Host plant resistance, Addis-Ababa, Ethiopia, 9–14 October 1995, in press.
Gaaboub I., Hayes D.K. 1984. Biological activity of Azadirachtin, component of the neem tree inhibiting molting in the face fly, Musca autumnalis De Geer (Diptera: Muscidae). Environ. Entomol. 13: 808–812.
Hellpap C. 1984. Effects of neem kernel extracts on the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda. Proceedings of the Second International Neem Conference. Ransischholzhausen, 1983: 353–364.
Jacobson M. 1982. Neem research in the US dept. of Agric.: chemical, biological and cultural aspects. Proceedings of the First Neem Conference. Rottach-Egern 1980: 33–42.
Jiliani G., Malik M.M. 1973. Studies on the neem plant as a repellent against stored grain insects. J. Sci. Ind. Res. 16: 251–254.
Kaethner M. 1992. Fitness reduction and mortality effects of neem-based pesticides on the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). J. Appl. Ent. 113: 456–465.
Leeper J.R., Raffa K.F., Bruhn J.A. 1988. Analysis of mortality characterization in developing LD values from topical application test results. Trop. Pest Manag. 34: 404–406.
Mordue A.J., Blackwell A. 1993. Azadirachtin: an update. J. Insect Physiol. 39: 903–924.
Morris O.N. 1973. Dosage mortality studies with commercial Bacillus thuringiensis sprayed in a modified Potter’s Tower against some forest insects. J. Invert. Pathol. 22: 108–114.
PAN, CTA 1995. Pesticides in tropical agriculture: hazards and alternatives. Verlag Josef Margraf, 281 pp.
Pradhan S., Jotwani M.G., Rai D.K. 1962. The neem seed deterrent to locust. Ind. Fmg. 12: 7–11.
Schiffers B.C., Dieye A., Ntema P., Dieye B., Ekukole G. 1997. Analyse de l’Azadirachtine par HPLC et développer d’une formulation d’extraits de neem. Med. Fac. Landbouww. Univ. Gent. 62: 225–233.
Schmutterer H. 1990. Properties and potential of natural insecticides from the neem, Azadirachta indica. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 35: 271–297.
Stoll G. 1992. Natural crop protection: based on local resources in the tropics and sub-tropics. Verlag Josef Margraf, 188 pp.
Volkonsky M. 1937. Sur l’action acridifuge des extraits de feuilles de Melia azedrach. Arch. Inst. Pasteur d’Algérie XV, 3 pp.
Zebitz C.P.W. 1984. Effect of some crude and azadirachtin-enriched neem (Azadirachta indica) seed kernel extracts on the larvae of Aedes aegyptii. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 35: 11–16.