ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Successful application of the baculovirus product Madex® for control of Cydia pomonella (L.) in Bulgaria
 
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1
Fruit Growing Institute, “Ostromila” 12, 4004 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
2
Swiss Federal Research Station Agroscope Changins-Wädenswil ACW, Switzerland Schloss 1, P.O. Box, CH-8820 Wädenswil, Switzerland
3
Andermatt Biocontrol AG, CH-6146 Grossdietwil, Switzerland
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Hristina Kutinkova
Fruit Growing Institute, “Ostromila” 12, 4004 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
 
Journal of Plant Protection Research 2012;52(2):205–213
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
The codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.), causes heavy damage in Bulgarian apple orchards. Conventionally treated orchards, were monitored in this study. In spite of numerous chemical treatments, these orchards showed increasing flight densities of CM moths, growing populations of hibernating larvae and rising fruit damage rates. Thus, the control of CM by conventional spray - ing programmes became ineffective, apparently due to the development of resistance to insecticides. Products based on the Cydia pomonella granulosis virus (CpGV), such as Madex ® , may provide alternative control tools that can be applied with other approaches, for a sustainable control strategy. The trials were carried out in Central-South and South-East Bulgaria, in 2006 -2010. Four treatments of Madex ® against the first generation, and six treatments against the second generation kept the fruit damage and population density of CM at a low level. Based on the obtained results, different control strategies have been suggested, depending on the initial CM pressure in a particular orchard. Madex ® may be a promising alternative to traditional programmes of CM control. Its dose, however, should be adjusted to the initial CM population density. Also, at a high or moderate CM population density Madex ® applications should be combined with MD to avoid resistance of CM to granulovirus. At the peak of CM hatching, additional chemical treatments may be sometimes necessary. Such treatments include using insecticides which are still effective against CM.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
 
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