The synergistic effect of piperonyl butoxide on the molluscicidal potential of monoterpenes and phenylpropenes against Theba pisana
Samir Abdelgaleil 1, A-B,D-F  
Mona Saad 1, A,C-D
More details
Hide details
Department of Pesticide Chemistry and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, 21545-El-Shatby, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
A - Research concept and design; B - Collection and/or assembly of data; C - Data analysis and interpretation; D - Writing the article; E - Critical revision of the article; F - Final approval of article
Samir Abdelgaleil   

Department of Pesticide Chemistry and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, 21545-El-Shatby, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
Submission date: 2018-05-07
Acceptance date: 2018-11-23
Online publication date: 2018-12-13
Journal of Plant Protection Research 2018;58(4):381–386
The molluscicidal activity of six monoterpenes and two phenylpropenes against Theba pisana adults was evaluated using fumigation and direct contact methods. In the fumigant toxicity assay, (-)-citronellal showed the highest toxicity with LC50 value of 7.79 μl · l−1 air after 24 h of treatment, followed by (-)-terpinen-4-ol (LC50 = 12.06 μl · l−1), (-)-menthone (LC50 = 12.28 μl · l−1 air) and p-cymene (LC50 = 16.07 μl · l−1 air). Eugenol and trans-cinnamaldehyde were the most potent contact toxicants against T. pisana. Their LD50 values were 0.18 and 0.29 mg · snail−1 after 24 h of treatment, respectively. These two compounds were more toxic than a reference molluscicide, methomyl. In contrast, α-terpinene and (-)-citronellal were the least toxic compounds. In another experiment, the synergistic effect of piperonyl butoxide (PBO) on tested monoterpenes and phenylpropenes by topical application was examined. The results showed that the toxicity of the tested compounds was increased when mixed with PBO at a ratio [compound/PBO (1 : 2)] except for α-pinene and (-)-terpinen-4-ol in which the toxicity of binary mixtures was less than for single compounds. The synergistic effect of PBO improved with increased exposure time. The highest synergistic effect was observed with (-)-menthone and α-terpinene with synergistic ratios of 9.25 and 4.37, respectively. Monoterpenes and phenylpropenes and their mixtures with PBO described herein merit further studies as potential T. pisana control agents.
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
Abdelgaleil S.A.M., Badawy M.E.I. 2006. Acaricidal and molluscicidal potential of three essential oils isolated from Egyptian plants. Journal of Pest Control and Environmental Science 14 (1): 35–46.
Abdelgaleil S.A.M. 2010. Molluscicidal and insecticidal potential of monoterpenes on the white garden snail, Theba pisana (Muller) and the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval). Applied Entomology and Zoology 45 (3): 425–433. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1303/aez.20....
Barker G.M. 2002. Mollusks as Crop Pests. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, Oxon, UK, 441 pp.
CABI. 2017. Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International. Invasive Species Compendium: https://www.cabi.org/.isc/data....
El-Aswad A.F., Abdelgaleil S.A.M. 2008. Insecticidal, antifeedant and molluscicidal potential of essential oils extracted from Egyptian plants. Journal of Egyptian Society of Toxicology 38 (1): 81–91.
El-Zemity S.R., Mohamed S.A., Radwan M.A., Sherby S.M. 2001a. Molluscicidal activity of some essential oils and their major chemical constituents against Biomphalaria alexandrina snails. Alexandria Journal of Pharmaceutical Science 15 (1): 67–70.
El-Zemity S.R., Mohamed S.A., Radwan M.A., Sherby S.M. 2001b. Molluscicidal efficacy and repellency of some naturally occurring monoterpenoids against the land snail, Helix aspersa Muller (Mollusca: Pulmonoata). Annals Agricultural Science Ain Shams University Cairo 46 (1): 339–346.
El-Zemity S.R. 2001. Molluscicidal activity of some naturally occurring compounds and their blends against land snails. Journal of Pest Control and Environmental Science 9 (1): 39–50.
Finney D.J. 1971. Probit Analysis. 3rd ed. Cambridge University Press, London, 318 pp.
Hussein H.I. 2005. Composition of essential oils isolated from three plant species and their molluscicidal activity against Theba pisana snails. Journal of Pest Control and Environmental Science 13 (1): 15–24.
Hussein H.I., Kamel A., Abou-Zeid M., El-Sebae A.H., Salah M.A. 1994. Uscharin, the most potent molluscicidal compound tested against land snails. Journal of Chemical Ecology 20 (1): 135–140. DOI: 10.1007/BF02065996.
Isman B.M. 2008. Perspective botanical insecticides: for richer, for poorer. Pest Management Science 64 (1): 8–11. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.147....
Isman M.B. 2000. Plant essential oils for pest and disease management. Crop Protection 19 (8−10): 603–608. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-....
Metcalf R.L. 1967. Mode of action of insecticide synergists. Annual Review of Entomology 12: 229–256.
Pasay C., Mounsey K., Stevenson G., Davis R., Arlian L., Morgan M., Vyszenski-Moher D., Andrews K., McCarthy J. 2010. Acaricidal activity of eugenol based compounds against scabies mites. PLoS ONE 5: e12079.
Radwan M.A., El-Zemity S.R. 2007. Naturally occurring compounds for control of harmful snails. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 39 (5): 339−344.
Rao I.G., Singh D.K. 2001. Combinations of Azadirachta indica and Cedrus deodara oil, with piperonyl butoxide, MGK-264 and Embelia ribes against Lymnaea acuminata. Chemosphere 44 (8): 1691–1695. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-....
Singh K., Singh A., Singh D.K. 1998. The use of piperonyl butoxide and MGK-264 to improve the efficacy of some plantderived molluscicides. Pesticide Science 54 (2): 145–149. DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1096-9063(1998100)54:2<145::AIDPS789>3.0.CO;2-3.
Tozzi A. 1998. A brief history of the development of piperonyl butoxide as an insecticide synergist. p. 1–5. In: “Piperonyl Butoxide: the Insecticide Synergist” (D.G. Jones, ed.) Academic Press, San Diego, 323 pp.
WHO. 1965. Molluscicidal screening and evaluation. WHO Bulletin 38: 507−581.
Yadav S., Mittal P.K., Saxena P.N., Singh R.K. 2009. Effect of synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) on the toxicity of some essential oils against mosquito larvae. The Journal of Communicable Diseases 41 (1): 33−38.