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Occurrence and distribution of nematodes in rice fields in Guilan province, Iran and the first record of Mylonchulus polonicus (Stefanski, 1915) Cobb, 1917 (Nematoda: Mononchina)

Soheila Shahabi1*, Ahmad Kheiri2, Farshad Rakhshandehroo3, Salar Jamali4

1 Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Science and Research Branch,
  Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 14515-775, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 4111, Karaj,
  31587-11167, Iran

3 Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Science and Research Branch,
  Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 14515-775, Tehran, Iran

4 Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, Guilan University, P.O. Box 14115-336, Rasht, Iran

*Corresponding address:
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Received: June 27, 2016
Accepted: November 21, 2016

Abstract: The distribution of nematodes was studied in rice fields in Guilan province, Iran, from 2014 to 2016. Nematode biodiversity of 250 soil and root samples was examined. Thirty nematode species were identified morphologically, including plant parasites, microbivores and mycetophagous and predator species. Molecular techniques were also used for further identification of three plant parasitic species. Indicators of population were also estimated. Spiral nematodes (Helicotylenchus crenacauda Sher, 1966 and H. digitiformis Ivanova, 1967) and stunt nematode (Tylenchorhynchus agri) were the predominant parasitic species identified. Among other species, three mononchid species were identified namely Mononchus aquaticus, Mylonchulus sigmaturus and M. polonicus. The species M. polonicus was found and reported in Iran for the first time. The two plant parasitic species T. agri and Xiphinema index were reported in association with rice in Iran for the first time. To evaluate the distribution and incidence of Aphelenchoides besseyi (rice white-tip nematode) in different regions of Guilan province, a total of 255 fresh seed samples were collected/inspected, of which, about 40% of them were infested with A. besseyi.  Of the 16 studied counties, the highest percentage of infected seeds came from fields around the city of Astara (69.2%) and the second highest infection was observed near the city of Anzali (60%).

Key words: Aphelenchoides besseyi, free-living nematodes, plant-parasitic nematodes, Tylenchorhynchus agri, Xiphinema index

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