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Ecological applications of Pseudomonas as a biopesticide to control two-spotted mite Tetranychus urticae: chitinase and HCN production

Redouan Qessaoui1, 2, Rachid Bouharroud2*, Abderrahim Amarraque2, Abdelhadi Ajerrar1, 2, El Hassan Mayad3, Bouchra Chebli1, Mokhtara Dadi2, Rachid Elaini4, Fayssal El Filali5, Alan Stuart Walters6

 

1Laboratory of Environmental Engineering and Biotechnology, National School of Applied Sciences, Agadir, Morocco

2Research Unit of Integrated Crop Production, Centre Regional de la Recherche Agronomiqued’Agadir (INRA), Morocco

3Laboratory of Plant Biotechnology, Faculty of Sciences, Ibn Zohr University, Agadir, Morocco

4Agronomic and Veterinary Institute Hassan II, Agadir, Morocco

5Laboratory of Bacteriology, Specialized Center of Valorisation and Technology of Sea Production, INRH, Agadir, Morocco

6Department of Plant, Soil, and Agricultural Systems, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL USA

 

*Corresponding address:

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Received: August 18, 2017

Accepted: November 20, 2017

 

Abstract

The two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) is an important pest of many horticultural crops. A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of three fluorescent Pseudomonas isolates obtained from rhizospheric soil of tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) in Agadir, Morocco: Q110B, Q036B and Q172B, as potential biological control agents for T. urticae. Both acaricide and repellent activities were assessed on homogenous adult mites. The acaricidal activity test evaluated five concentrations of bacterial suspensions: 0 (control), 102, 104, 106, 108, and 1010 cfu  ml–1, while only the 1010 cfu ∙ ml−1 concentration of each bacterium was used for the repellent bioassay. The mortality rate and repellentindex were recorded 24, 48 and 72 h after application. Results indicated that the survival rate of T. urticae was reduced (p ≤ 0.01) by all three bacterial isolates compared to control. Within the 24–72 h time period the mortality rates ranged from 8 to 87%, 16 to 99%, and 13 to 89%, for Q110B, Q036B and Q172B isolates, respectively. The isolate Q036B (LC50 = 0.598 cfu  ml–1) provided higher mortality rates than Q172B and Q110B with LC50 values of 90,846 and 169,585 cfu  ml–1, respectively. Repellent activity was also the highest with Pseudomonas Q036B having a 71% repellence index at 48 h after application. Regarding the mechanism of action, all three isolates produced hydrogen cyanide, and exhibited protease and cellulose activities, although only Q036B and Q172B had potential chitinase action. Identification analysis showed that the isolates were either Pseudomonas putida (Q172B) or P. fluorescens (Q110B and Q036B). Our results indicate that the P. fluorescens isolate Q036B is a promising candidate for biological control of T. urticae, and has potential to contribute to an integrated pest management program to control this important pest. Then the fruits produced will be qualified as safe for consumers and the environment. The present work was customized to give support for policy decision makers as an agroecological potential meeting needs of industries and ecological balance.

 

Key words: biological control, biopesticide, chitinase, ecology, PseudomonasTetranychus urticae

 
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