Discoloured seeds of amaranth plant infected by Alternaria alternata: physiological, histopathological alterations and fungal secondary metabolites associated or registered
More details
Hide details
Instituto Fitotécnico de Santa Catalina, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Forestales, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CP 1836, Llavallol, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Centro de Investigaciones Fitopatológicas, Cátedra de Fitopatología, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Forestales, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CP1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Comisión de Investigaciones Científicas de la provincia de Buenos Aires, CP 1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires Argentina
Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad Nacional de Lomas de Zamora, CP1836, Llavallol, Argentina
Department IFA-Tulln, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna (BOKU), Konrad Lorenz Strasse 20, CP 3430, Tulln, Austria
Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Tecnológicas, CABA, Av. Rivadavia 1917, CP 1033, Buenos Aires, Argentina
María Cristina Noelting
Instituto Fitotécnico de Santa Catalina, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Forestales, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CP 1836, Llavallol, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Submission date: 2016-01-27
Acceptance date: 2016-06-22
Journal of Plant Protection Research 2016;56(3):244–249
In the present study the aspects of discolouration that could influence both the production and consumption of amaranth were analyzed with the objectives to identify the presence of Alternaria alternata on seeds, to analyze possible changes in the anatomy of seed tissues and to detect the presence of fungal secondary metabolites. Component plating, histopathological and mycological analyses on discoloured seeds allowed i) location of propagules of A. alternata in all seminal components; ii) observation of hypertrophies in perisperm and embryo and iii) determination of several fungal secondary metabolites, mainly high concentrations of tenuazonic acid. To our knowledge, the information presented in this paper, related to physiological, histopathological changes and fungal secondary metabolites on discoloured seeds of (Amaranthus mantegazzianus syn. A. caudatus subsp. mantegazzianus (Pass) Hanelt affected by A. alternata, is the first worldwide record.
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
Afolabi A.O., Oke O.L., Umoh B. 1981. Preliminary studies on the nutritive value of some cereal-like grains. Nutrition Reports International 24: 389–394.
Agrawal K., Sharma J., Singh T., Singh D. 1987. Histopathology of Alternaria tenuis infected black pointed kernels of wheat. Botanical Bulletin Academia Sinica 28: 123–130.
Bartolini J.S., Hampton J.G. 1989. Grain amaranth – seed development, yield and quality. Proceedings Agronomy Society New Zealand 19: 55–61.
Becker R., Wheeler E.L., Lorenz K., Stafford A.E., Grosjean O.K., Betschart A.A., Saunders R.M. 1981. A compositional study of amaranth grain. Journal of Food Science 46 (4): 1175–1180.
Biasi A., Zachetti V., Oviedo M.S., Reynoso M.M., Ramirez M.L. 2013. Presencia de especies de Alternaria y sus micotoxinas en semillas de amaranto. [Presence of Alternaria species and mycotoxins un amaranth seeds]. p 101. In: Proccedings of VII Congreso Latinoamericano de Micotoxicología, Río Cuarto, Córdoba, Argentina, 2–6 December 2013, 190 pp. (in Spanish).
Bottalico A., Logrieco A. 1992. Alternaria plant diseases in Mediterranean countries and associated fungal secondary metabolites. p. 32. In: “Alternaria : Biology Plant Diseases and Metabolites” (J. Chelkowski, A. Visconti, eds.). Elsevier 209, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 573 pp.
Conner R.L., Davidson J.G.N. 1988. Resistance in wheat to black point caused by Alternaria alternata and Cochliobolus sativus. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 68: 351–359.
D’Ambroggio de A.A. 1986. Manual de Técnicas en Histología Vegetal [Manual Techniques in Plant Histology]. Hemisferio Sur Editorial, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 83 pp. (in Spanish).
EFSA. 2011. Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain Scientific opinion on the risks for animal and public health related to the presence of Alternaria toxins in feed and food. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Journal 9 (10): 2407.
Knoche H.W., Duvick J.P. 1987. The role of fungal toxins in plant disease. p. 158–192. In: “Fungal Infection of Plants” (G.F. Pegg, P.G. Ayres, eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 430 pp.
Limonard T. 1966. A modified blotter test for seed health. Netherland Journal of Plant Pathology 72: 319–321.
Lorenz K. 1986. Effects of black point on grain composition and baking quality of New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 29: 711–718.
Malachová A., Sulyok M., Beltrán E., Berthiller F., Krska R. 2014. Optimization and validation of a quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method covering 295 bacterial and fungal metabolites including all regulated mycotoxins in four model food matrices. Journal of Chromatography A 1362: 145–156.
Makus D.J., Davis D.R. 1984. A mid-summer crop for fresh greens or canning vegetable amaranth. Arkansas Farm Research 33 (3): 10.
Mathur S.B., Cunfer B. 1993. Black point. p. 13–21. In: “Seedborne Diseases and Seed Health Testing of Wheat” (S.B. Mathur, B. Cunfer, eds.). Danish Government Institute of Seed Pathology for Developing Countries, Copenhagen, Denmark, 168 pp.
Mathur S.B., Kongsdal O. 2003. Common Laboratory Seed Health Testing Methods for Detecting Fungi. International Seed Testing Association (ISTA), Bassersdorf, Switzerland, 425 pp.
Montemurro N., Visconti A. 1992. Alternaria metabolites-chemical and biological data. p. 449–541. In: “Alternaria: Biology Plant Diseases and Metabolites” (J. Chelkowski, A. Visconti, eds.). Elsevier 209, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 32 pp.
Moreno-Velázquez M., Yáñez-Morales M.J., Rojas-Martínez R.I., Zavaleta-Mejía E., Trinidad-Santos A., Arellano-Vázquez J.L. 2005. Diversidad de hongos en semilla de amaranto (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.) y su caracterización molecular [Fungal diversity in amaranthus (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.) seed and their molecular characterization]. Revista Mexicana de Fitopatología 23: 111–118. (in Spanish, with English summary).
NRC (National Research Council). 1984. Amaranth: Modern Prospects for an Ancient Crop. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA, 76 pp.
Noelting M.C., Sandoval M.C., Abiatti N.N. 2004. Determinación de micoorganismos en semillas de amaranto en diferentes medios de cultivo [Determination of fungi microorganism on amaranth seeds (Amaranthus spp.) by different analysis methods]. Revista Peruana de Biología 11 (2): 169–178 (in Spanish).
Noelting M.C., Sisterna M.N., Lori G., Sandoval M.C., Molina M., Mónaco C.I. 2011. First report of Alternaria alternata causing discolouration on Amaranthus seeds in Argentina. Australasian Plant Disease Notes 6 (1): 1–2.
Őzer N. 2005. Determination of the fungi responsible for black point in bread wheat and effects of the disease on emergence and seedling vigor. Trakya University Journal Science 6 (1): 35–40.
Pusz W. 2009a. Fungi from seeds of Amaranthus spp. Phytopathología 54: 15–21.
Pusz W. 2009b. Valuation of the healthiness of Amaranthus leaves. Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Przyrodniczego we Wrocławiu – Rolnictwo 95 (574): 51–61.
Samson R.A., Hoekstra E.S., Lund F., Filtenborg O., Frisvad J.C. 2002. Method for the detection, isolation and characterization of food-borne fungi. p. 283–297. In: “Introduction to Food and Airborne Fungi” (R.A. Samson, E.S. Hoekstra, J.C. Frisvad, O. Filtenborg, eds.). Centraalbureau voor Schimmecultures Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 389 pp.
Sánchez Eneiso E.M., Osada K.S., Téliz O.D., Espitia R.E., Rendom S.G. 1990. Etiología e incidencia de la mancha negra del tallo em Amaranthus sp. y otras enfermedades [Etiology and incidence of the stem black spot and other diseases in Amaranthus sp.]. Revista Mexicana de Fitopatología 8: 102.106 (in Spanish).
Teutonico R.A., Knorr D. 1985. Amaranth: composition, properties and applications of a rediscovered food crop. Food Technology 39: 49–60.
Theerthagiri A., Ramanujam B., Thiruvengadam R., Gandhi K., Manikam R., Govindasamy S. 2008. Production of cell wall degrading enzymes and toxins by Colletotrichum capsici and Alternaria alternata causing fruit rot of chillies. Journal of Plant Protection Research 48 (4): 437–451.
Willis R.B.H., Wong A.W.K., Scriven F.M., Greenfield H. 1984. Nutrient composition of Chinese vegetables. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 32: 413–416.