ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Effect of cold plasma on degradation of organophosphorus pesticides used on some agricultural products
 
More details
Hide details
1
Department of Entomology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran, 1477893855
2
Department of Plasma Physics Research Center, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran, 1477893855
3
Department of Organic Chemical, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran, 1477893855
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Sohrab Imani
Department of Entomology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran, 1477893855
Submission date: 2016-04-27
Acceptance date: 2017-02-01
 
Journal of Plant Protection Research 2017;57(1):26–35
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
This study investigated the potential effect of cold plasma on reducing residues of pesticides diazinon and chlorpyrifos in apples and cucumbers and its effects on property of products. Two separate concentrations of each pesticide with 500 and 1,000 ppm were prepared and the samples were inoculated by dipping them into the solutions. All samples treated with pesticides were exposed to cold plasma in a monopole cold plasma apparatus (DBD) run at 10 and 13 kV voltages. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) was used to remove pesticide residues from the samples. Eventually, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to measure the amount of pesticides in the samples. Also, to investigate generated metabolites, extracts were injected into a GC/MS apparatus. In addition, the effects of cold plasma on humidity, tissue hardness, color and the sugar percentage of products were analyzed. The results revealed that treatment of samples with cold plasma considerably reduced pesticide residues without leaving any traces of harmful or toxic substances. Furthermore, it did not have any undesirable effects on the color and texture of the samples. The efficiency of this method increased with higher voltage and longer exposure time. In general, the best results were obtained by the combination of 500 ppm concentration, 10 min exposure and 13 kV voltages. The residues of diazinon were reduced better than the residues of chlorpyrifos. Apples were detoxified much better than cucumbers. Also, cold plasma treatment transformed diazinon and chlorpyrifos pesticides into their less toxic metabolites. The results showed that with increased voltage and longer exposure time, cold plasma caused few changes in moisture and glucose content, texture hardness and color of products. There were no significant difference between treated samples and control in all treatments.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
 
REFERENCES (27)
1.
Abu-Qare A.W., Abou-Donia M.B. 2001. Determination of diazinon, chlorpyrifos, and their metabolites in rat plasma and urine by high-performance liquid chromatography. Journal of Chromatographic Science 39 (5): 200–204.
 
2.
Ambrus A. 2009. Estimation of sampling uncertainty for determination of pesticide residues in plant commodities. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B 44: 627–639.
 
3.
Bai Y.H., Zhou L., Wang J. 2006. Organophosphorus pesticide residues in market foods in Shaanxi area, China. Food Chemistry 98 (2): 240–242.
 
4.
Bai Y., Chen J., Mu H., Zhang C., Li B. 2009. Reduction of dichlorvos and omethoate residues by O2 plasma treatment. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 57 (14): 6238–6245.
 
5.
Bai Y., Chen J., Yang Y., Guo L., Zhang C. 2010. Degradation of organophosphorus pesticide induced by oxygen plasma: effects of operating parameters and reaction mechanisms. Chemosphere 81 (3): 408–414.
 
6.
Bayliss D.L., Walsh J.L., Shama G., Iza F., Kong M.G. 2009. Reduction and degradation of amyloid aggregates by a pulsed radio-frequency cold atmospheric plasma jet. New Journal of Physics 11 (11): 115024.
 
7.
Bermúdez-Aguirre D., Wemlinger E., Pedrow P., Barbosa-Cánovas G., Garcia-Perez M. 2013. Effect of atmospheric pressure cold plasma (APCP) on the inactivation of Escherichia coli in fresh produce. Food Control 34 (1): 149–157.
 
8.
Deng X.T., Shi J.J., Kong M.G. 2007. Protein destruction by a helium atmospheric pressure glow discharge: capability and mechanisms. Journal of Applied Physics 101 (7): 074701.
 
9.
Feng H., Sun P., Chai Y., Tong G., Zhang J., Zhu W., Fang J. 2009. The interaction of a direct-current cold atmospheric-pressure air plasma with bacteria. IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science 37 (1): 121–127.
 
10.
Fernández A., Thompson A. 2012. The inactivation of Salmonella by cold atmospheric plasma treatment. Food Research International 45 (2): 678–684.
 
11.
Georgescu N., Lungu C.P., Lupu A. 2010. Chemical activation of the high voltage pulsed, cold atmospheric plasma jets. Romanian Reports in Physics 62 (1): 142–151.
 
12.
Hernandez-Borges J., Cabrera J.C., Rodriguez-Delgado M.A. 2009. Analysis of pesticide residues in bananas harvested in the Canary Islands (Spain). Food Chemistry 113 (1): 313–319.
 
13.
Kim S.H., Kim J.H., Kang B.K. 2007. Decomposition reaction of organophosphorus nerve agents on solid surfaces with atmospheric radio frequency plasma generated gaseous species. Langmuir (the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids) 23 (15): 8074–8078.
 
14.
Koban I., Matthes R., Hübner N.O., Welk A., Meisel P., Holtfreter B., Sietmann R., Kindel E., Weltmann K.D., Kramer A., Kocher T. 2010. Treatment of Candida albicans biofi lms with low-temperature plasma induced by dielectric barrier discharge and atmospheric pressure plasma jet. New Journal of Physics 12 (7): 073039.
 
15.
Kouloumbos V.N., Tsipi D.F., Hiskia A.E., Nikolic D., van Breemen R.B. 2003. Identification of photocatalytic degradation products of diazinon in TiO2 aqueous suspensions using GC/MS/MS and LC/MS with quadrupole time-of-fl ight mass spectrometry. Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry 14 (8): 803–817.
 
16.
Le Person A., Mellouki A., Munoz A., Borras E., Martin-Reviejo M., Wirtz K. 2007. Trifluralin: photolysis under sunlight conditions and reaction with HO radicals. Chemosphere 67 (2): 376–383.
 
17.
Li S.P., Jiang Y.Y., Cao X.H., Dong Y.W., Dong M., Xu J. 2013. Degradation of nitenpyram pesticide in aqueous solution by low-temperature plasma. Environmental Technology 34 (12): 1609–1616.
 
18.
Li W., Liu Y., Duan J., van Leeuwen J., Saint C.P. 2015. UV and UV/H 2O2 treatment of diazinon and its influence on disinfection byproduct formation following chlorination. Chemical Engineering Journal 274: 39–49.
 
19.
Misra N.N., Patil S., Moiseev T., Bourke P., Mosnier J.P., Keener K.M., Cullen P.J. 2014. In-package atmospheric pressure cold plasma treatment of strawberries. Journal of Food Engineering 125: 131–138.
 
20.
Misra N.N., Tiwari B.K., Raghavarao K.S.M.S., Cullen P.J. 2011. Nonthermal plasma inactivation of food-borne pathogens. Food Engineering Reviews 3 (3–4): 159–170.
 
21.
Niemira B.A. 2012. Cold plasma decontamination of foods. Annual Review and Food Science and Technology 3: 125–142.
 
22.
Oancea P., Oncescu T. 2008. The photocatalytic degradation of dichlorvos under solar irradiation. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry 199 (1): 8–13.
 
23.
Ormad M.P., Miguel N., Claver A., Matesanz J.M., Ovelleiro J.L. 2008. Pesticides removal in the process of drinking water production. Chemosphere 71 (1): 97–106.
 
24.
Reddy P.M.K., Mahammadunnisa S., Subrahmanyam C. 2014. Catalytic non-thermal plasma reactor for mineralization of endosulfan in aqueous medium: A green approach for the treatment of pesticide contaminated water. Chemical Engineering Journal 238: 157–163.
 
25.
Tamaki M., Ikeura H. 2012. Removal of residual pesticides in vegetables using ozone microbubbles. INTECH Open Access Publisher. Chapter 6. p. 113–118.
 
26.
Wang R.X., Nian W.F., Wu H.Y., Feng H.Q., Zhang K., Zhang J., Zhu W.D., Becker K.H., Fan J. 2012. Atmospheric-pressure cold plasma treatment of contaminated fresh fruit and vegetable slices: inactivation and physicochemical properties evaluation. The European Physical Journal D 66 (10): 1–7.
 
27.
Zhang Y., Zhang W., Liao X., Zhang J., Hou Y., Xiao Z., Chen F., Hu X. 2010. Degradation of diazinon in apple juice by ultrasonic treatment. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 17 (4): 662–668.
 
eISSN:1899-007X
ISSN:1427-4345