ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Identification of viruses infecting cucurbits and determination of genetic diversity of Cucumber mosaic virus in Lorestan province, Iran
 
More details
Hide details
1
Plant Pathology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Masoud Shams-bakhsh
Plant Pathology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
Submission date: 2016-05-18
Acceptance date: 2017-04-07
 
Journal of Plant Protection Research 2017;57(2):91–100
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Various viral pathogens infect Cucurbitaceae and cause economic losses. The aim of the present study was to detect plant viral pathogens including Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV), Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) and Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus (CCYV) in Lorestan province, in western Iran, and also to determine CMV genetic diversity in Iranian populations. A total of 569 symptomatic leaf samples were collected in 2013 and 2014 from cucurbits growing regions in Lorestan province. The collected samples were assessed for viral diseases by ELISA. The results showed virus incidences in most regions. Then, the infection of 40 samples to CMV was confi rmed by RT-PCR. Moreover, to distinguish between the two groups (I and II) of CMV, PCR products were digested by two restriction enzymes XhoI and EcoRI. Results of the digestion showed that the isolates of Lorestan belonged to group I. The CMV-coat protein gene of eight isolates from different regions and hosts was sequenced and phylogenetic analysis was performed. Subsequent analyses showed even more genetic variation among Lorestan isolates. The phylogenetic tree revealed that Lorestan province isolates belonged to two IA and IB subgroups and could be classified together with East Azerbaijan province isolates. The results of the present study indicate a wide distribution of CMV, ZYMV, CGMMV, CYSDV and CCYV viruses in cucurbits fields of Lorestan province and for the first time subgroup IB of CMV was reported on melon from Iran.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
 
REFERENCES (48)
1.
Anonymous. 2011. Meteorological Department. Lorestan Province. Iran. http://www.lorestanmet.ir.
 
2.
Bananej K., Menzel W., Kianfar N., Vahdat A., Winter S. 2013. First report of Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus infecting cucumber, melon, and squash in Iran. Plant Disease 97 (7): 1005. DOI: 10.1094/pdis-01-13-0125-pdn.
 
3.
Bananej K., Vahdat A. 2008. Identification, distribution and incidence of viruses in fieldgrown cucurbit crops of Iran. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 47: 247–257.
 
4.
Bashir N.S., Kalhor M.R., Zarghani S.N. 2006. Detection, differentiation and phylogenetic analysis of Cucumber mosaic virus isolates from cucurbits in the northwest region of Iran. Virus Genes 32 (3): 277–288. DOI: 10.1007/s11262-005-6912-2.
 
5.
Boccard F., Baulcombe D. 1993. Mutational analysis of cis-acting sequences and gene function in RNA3 of Cucumber mosaic virus. Virology 193 (2): 563–578. DOI: 10.1006/viro.1993.1165.
 
6.
Brown H.D., Weir B.S. 1983. Measuring genetic variability in plant populations. p. 219–239. In: “Isozymes in Plant Genetics and Breeding” (S.D. Tanksley, T.J. Orton, eds.). Part A. Elsevier Sciense Publishers, Amsterdam, 527 pp.
 
7.
Converse R.H., Martin R.R. 1999. ELISA methods for plant viruses. p. 179–196. In: “Serological Methods for Detection and Identification of Viral and Bacterial Plant Pathogens, A Laboratory Manual” (R. Hampton, E.M. Ball, S.H. De Boer, eds.). APS Press, St. Paul, MN, 389 pp.
 
8.
Crescenzi A., Barbarossa L., Gallitelli D., Martelli G. 1993. Cucumber mosaic cucumovirus populations in Italy under natural epidemic conditions and aft er a satellite-mediated protection test. Plant Disease 77 (1): 28–33. DOI: 10.1094/pd-77-0028.
 
9.
Davies C., Symons R.H. 1988. Further implications for the evolutionary relationships between tripartite plant viruses based on Cucumber mosaic virus RNA 3. Virology 165 (1): 216–224. doi.org/10.1016/0042-6822(88)9....
 
10.
Desbiez C., Lecoq H. 1997. Zucchini yellow mosaic virus. Plant Pathology 46 (6): 809–829. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-3059.1997.d01-87.x.
 
11.
Francki R.I.B. 1988. Cucumber green mottle mosaic tobamovirus. In: “Plant Viruses Online: Descriptions and Lists from the VIDE Database” (A.A. Brunt, K. Crabtree, M.J. Dallwitz, A.J. Gibbs, L. Watson E.J. Zurcher, eds.). Version: 16th January 1997. http://biology.anu.edu.au/Grou....
 
12.
Gallitelli D. 2000. The ecology of Cucumber mosaic virus and sustainable agriculture. Virus Ressearch 71 (1–2): 9–21. DOI: 10.1016/s0168-1702(00)00184-2.
 
13.
Ghorbani S. 1988. Isolation of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus in the Tehran province. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology 24: 13–15.
 
14.
Gyoutoku Y., Okazaki S., Furuta A., Etoh T., Mizobe M., Kuno K., Hayashida S., Okuda M. 2009. Chlorotic yellows disease of melon caused by Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus, a new crinivirus. Japanise Journal of Phytopathology 75 (2): 109–111. DOI: 10.3186/jjphytopath.75.109.
 
15.
Huelsenbeck J.P., Ronquist F. 2001. MRBAYES: Bayesian inference of phylogenetic trees. Bioinformatics 17 (8): 754–755. doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics....
 
16.
Kaper J.M., Waterworth H.C. 1981. Cucumoviruses. p. 257–332. In: “Handbook of Plant Virus Infections: Comparative Diag nosis” (E. Kurstak, ed.). Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 943 pp.
 
17.
Keshavarz T., Izadpanah K. 2005. Etiology of cucurbit yellows in the Boushehr province, Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology 41 (2): 291–292.
 
18.
Keshavarz T., Shams-Bakhsh M., Izadpanah K., Malboobi M.A. 2013a. Occurrence and genome analysis of Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus in Iran. Journal of Phytopathology 162 (7–8): 523–526. DOI: 10.1111/jph.12212.
 
19.
Keshavarz T., Shams-Bakhsh M., Izadpanah K., Nassaj S. 2013b. Geographic distribution and phylogenetic analysis of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in Iran. Acta Virologica 57 (4): 415-420. DOI: 10.4149/av_2013_04_415.
 
20.
Kield O. 2006. PDRAW32 1.1. 92 DNA analysis soft ware. Aca-Clone soft ware. http://www. acaclone.com.
 
21.
Larget B., Simon D.L. 1999. Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithms for the Bayesian analysis of phylogenetic trees. Molecular Biology and Evolution 16 (6): 750–759. doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals....
 
22.
Lin H-X., Rubio L., Smythe A., Jiminez M., Falk B.W. 2003. Genetic diversity and biological variation among California isolates of Cucumber mosaic virus. Journal of General Virology 84: 249–258. DOI: 10.1099/vir.0.18673-0.
 
23.
Liu Y.Y., Yu S., Lan Y.F., Zhang C.L., Hou S.S., Li X.D., Zhang G.M., Shi C.K. 2009. Molecular variability of fi ve Cucumber mosaic virus isolates from China. Acta Virologica 53 (2): 89–97. DOI: 10.4149/av_2009_02_89.
 
24.
Louro D., Vicente M., Vaira A., Accotto G., Nolasco G. 2000. Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (genus Crinivirus) associated with the yellowing disease of cucurbit crops in Portugal. Plant Disease 84 (10): 1156. DOI: 10.1094/PDIS.2000.84.10.1156A.
 
25.
Martin D.P., Lemey P., Lott M., Moulton V., Posada D., Lefeuvre P. 2010. RDP3: a flexible and fast computer program for analyzing recombination. Bioinformatics 26 (19): 2462–2463. DOI: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btq467.
 
26.
Nei M. 1978. Estimation of Average Heterozygosity and Genetic Distance from a Small Number of Individuals. Genetics 89 (3): 583–590.
 
27.
Nematollahi S., Sokhandan-Bashir N., Rakhshandehroo F., Zamanizadeh H.R. 2012. Phylogenetic analysis of new isolates of Cucumber mosaic virus from Iran on the basis of different genomic regions. The Plant Pathology Journal 28 (4): 381–389. doi.org/10.5423/ppj.oa.06.2012....
 
28.
Nouri S., Arevalo R., Falk B.W., Groves R.L. 2014. Genetic structure and molecular variability of Cucumber mosaic virus isolates in the United States. PLoS ONE 9 (5): e96582.doi.org/10.1371/journal....
 
29.
Palukaitis P., García-Arenal F. 2003. Cucumoviruses. Advances in Virus Research 62: 241–323. dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-3527(....
 
30.
Peakall R., Smouse P.E. 2006. GENALEX 6: genetic analysis in Excel. Population genetic soft ware for teaching and research. Molecular Ecology Resources 6 (1): 288–295. doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-8286.20....
 
31.
Posada D., Crandall K.A. 1998. Modeltest: testing the model of DNA substitution. Bioinformatics 14 (9): 817–818. doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics....
 
32.
Pratap D., Kumar S., Snehi S., Raj S. 2012. Biological and molecular characterization of Cucumber mosaic virus isolate causing shoestring disease of tomato in India which has closer affinity to European or East Asian isolates of CMV.Indian Journal of Virology 23 (1): 57–63. doi.org/10.1007/s13337-012-005....
 
33.
Provvidenti R. 1996. Diseases caused by viruses. p. 37–45. In: “Compendium of Cucurbit Diseases” (T.A. Zitte, D.L. Hopkins, C.E. Th omas, eds.). American Phytopathological Society, 87 pp.
 
34.
Purcifull D., Hiebert E., Edwardson J. 1984. Watermelon mosaic virus 2. CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses. No 293 Preveza, Greece, 115. Commonwealth Mycological Institute and Association of Applied Biologists, Kew, England, UK.
 
35.
Rahimian H., Izadpanah K. 1977. A new strain of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus from Iran. Iranian Journal of Agriculture Research 5: 25–34.
 
36.
Rahimian H., Izadpanah K. 1978. Identity and prevalence of mosaic-inducing cucurbit viruses in Shiraz, Iran. Journal of Phytopathology 92 (4): 305–312. doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0434.19....
 
37.
Rasoulpour R., Izadpanah K. 2008. Properties and taxonomic position of hoary cress strain of Cucumber mosaic virus. Journal of Plant Pathology 90 (1): 97–102.
 
38.
Robinson R.W., Decker-Walters D.S. 1997. Cucurbits. CAB international, 226 pp.
 
39.
Rohlf F. 1998. NTSYS-pc version 2.0. Numerical Taxonomy and Multivariate Analysis System. Exeter soft ware, Setauket, New York. 44 pp.
 
40.
Roossinck M.J. 2002. Evolutionary history of Cucumber mosaic virus deduced by phylogenetic analyses. Journal of Virology 76 (7): 3382–3387. doi.org/10.1128/jvi.76.7.3382-....
 
41.
Rozas J., Sánchez-DelBarrio J.C., Messeguer X., Rozas R. 2003. DnaSP: DNA polymorphism analyses by the coalescent and other methods. Bioinformatics 19 (18): 2496–2497. doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics....
 
42.
Shim C.K., Han K.S., Lee J.H., Bae D.W., Kim D.K., Kim H.K. 2005. Isolation and characterization of watermelon isolate of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV-HY1) from watermelon plants with severe mottle mosaic symptoms. The Plant Pathology Journal 21 (2): 167–171. doi.org/10.5423/ppj.2005.21.2.....
 
43.
Soards A.J., Murphy A.M., Palukaitis P., Carr J.P. 2002. Virulence and differential local and systemic spread of Cucumber mosaic virus in tobacco are aff ected by the CMV 2b protein. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 15 (7): 647–653. doi.org/10.1094/mpmi.2002.15.7....
 
44.
Sokhandan B.N., Nematollahi S., Torabi E. 2007. Cucumber mosaic virus subgroup IA frequently occurs in the northwest Iran. Acta Virologica 52 (4): 237–242.
 
45.
Tajima F., 1983. Evolutionary Relationship of DNA Sequences in Finite Populations. Genetics 105 (2): 437–460.
 
46.
Tamura K., Peterson D., Peterson N., Stecher G., Nei M., Kumar S. 2011. MEGA5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods. Molecular Biology and Evolution 28 (10): 2731–2739. DOI: 10.1093/molbev/msr121.
 
47.
Valkonen J., Pehu E., Watanabe K. 1992. Symptom expression and seed transmission of Alfalfa mosaic virus and Potato yellowing virus (SB-22) in Solanum brevidens and S. etuberosum. Potato Research 35 (4): 403–410. DOI: 10.1007/bf02357596.
 
48.
Watterson G.A. 1975. On the number of segregating sites in genetical models without recombination. The toretical Population Biology 7 (2): 256–276. DOI: 10.1016/0040-5809-(75)90020-9.
 
eISSN:1899-007X
ISSN:1427-4345