Plants can recognize molecules derived from pathogens and trigger systemic acquired resistance (SAR). In phytopathogenic bacteria, elicitors are constituent components of cellular structures, such as flagellin. We sought to select structural components of Xanthomonas spp. incompatible with tomato, aiming to control bacterial spot (Xanthomonas perforans). Initially, cell suspensions from 11 Xanthomonas spp. isolates were infiltrated into the leaves to assess their ability to cause a hypersensitivity response (HR) and the incompatible ones had their flagellin purified. The flagellin of the isolates were first applied at different concentrations, via infiltration and spraying. The pathogen, X. perforans, was inoculated after 24 h, to assess whether there would be any harmful reaction. No harmful reaction was observed in any treatment. Then, a second experiment was conducted to assess the severity of all isolates, at a concentration of 8.35 μg · ml–1, via spraying, infiltration, and soil. The greatest reduction in Area Under the Disease Progress Curve (AUDPC) was observed in the treatment with XapRR, applied via spraying. Thus, prospecting for elicitors is the first step in developing a product for agricultural use. The flagellin elicitor of XapRR is promising and capable of producing these molecules on a large scale.
Camila would like to thank The Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho” – Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas for the opportunity to do her master’s, Embrapa Meio Ambiente for giving space in laboratories and greenhouses to carry out this research and Wirton Macedo Coutinho, Daniel Augusto Schurt, Alessandra Keiko Nakasone, and Nadson de Carvalho Pontes for sending the isolates.
This study was financed by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior-Brasil (CAPES) – Finance Code 001. Financial support was received from Capes/Programa de Demanda Social (CAPES/DS). Bernardo de Almeida Halfeld- -Vieira thanks the National Council for Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq) for his research productivity fellowship (Proc. 303396/2018-0).
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
Araújo F.F., Menezes D. 2009. Induction of resistance to leaf diseases in tomato by biotic inducers (Bacillus subtilis) and abiotic (Acibenzolar-S-Methyl). Summa Phytopathologica 35 (3): 169–172. (in Portuguese).
Araújo J.S.P., Robbs C.F., Ribeiro R.L.D. 2003. Integrated management of phytobacterioses of economic importance in Brazil. Part 1. p. 107–131. In: “Annual Review of Plant Pathology” (W.C. Luz, J.M.C. Fernandes, A.M. Prestes, E.C. Picini, eds.).
Bettiol W., Morandi M.A.B. 2009. Biocontrol of Plant Diseases: Use and Perspectives. Embrapa Meio Ambiente, 341 pp. (in Portuguese).
Bonaldo S.M., Pashcolati S.F., Romeiro R.S. 2005. Resistance induction: basics notions and perspectives. p. 11–28. In: “Induction of Resistance in Plants to Pathogens and Insects” (L.S. Cavalcanti, R.M. Di Piero, P. Cia, S.F. Pashcolati, M.L.V. Resende, R.S. Romeiro, eds.). 1st ed. (e.g. in Portuguese). FEALQ, Piracicaba, Brazil.
Braga W.S., Cunha R.W.S. da, Suassuna N.D., Coutinho W.M. 2016. Prevalence of race 18 of Xanthomonas citri subsp. malvacearum on cotton in Brazil. Tropical Plant Pathology 41: 128–131. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40858....
Burketova L., Trda L., Ott P.G., Valentova O. 2015. Bio-based resistance inducers for sustainable plant protection against pathogens. Biotechnology Advances 33 (6): 994–1004. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biot....
Conrath U. 2011. Molecular aspects of defence priming. Trends in Plant Science 16 (10): 524–531. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tpla....
Desaki Y., Miya A., Venkatesh B., Tsuyumu S., Yamane H., Kaki H., Minami E., Shibuya N. 2006. Bacterial lipopolysaccharides induce defense responses associated with programmed cell death in rice cells. Plant Cell Physiology 47: 1530–1540. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pc....
Farahani A.S., Taghavi S.M. 2017. Induction of resistance in tomato against Xanthomonas perforans by lipopolysaccharides of the pathogen. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection 50: 649–657. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/032354....
Fialho M.B. 2004. In vitro effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on Guignardia citricarpa, the causal agent of citrus black spot, p.60. (in Portuguese).
Fu Z.Q., Dong X. 2013. Systemic acquired resistance: turning local infection into global defense. Annual Review of Phytopathology 64: 839–863. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annure....
Gao Q.M., Zhu S., Kachroo P., Kachroo A. 2015. Signal regulators of systemic acquired resistance. Frontiers in Plant Science 6: 228–239. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2....
Griffini K., Gambley C., Brown P., Li Y. 2017. Copper-tolerance in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and Xanthomonas spp. and the control of diseases associated with these pathogens in tomato and pepper. A systematic literature reviews. Crop Protection 96: 144–150. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crop....
Halfeld-Vieira B.A., Silva W.L.M da, Schurt D.A., Ishida A.K.N., Souza G.R de, Nechet K. de L. 2015. Understanding the mechanism of biological control of passionfruit bacterial blight promoted by autochthonous phylloplane bacteria. Biological Control 80: 40–49. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bi....
Iriti M., Varoni E.M. 2017. Moving to the field: plant innate immunity in crop protection. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 18 (3): 640–643. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18....
Ishida J. K., Wakatake T., Yoshida S., Takebayashi Y., Kasahara H., Wafula E., Depamphilis C. W., Namba S., Shirasu K. 2016. Local auxin biosynthesis mediated by a YUCCA flavin monooxygenase regulates haustorium development in the parasitic plant Phtheirospermum japonicum. The Plant Cell 28 (8): 1795–1814. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1105/tpc.....
Jacques M.A., Boulanger A., Boureau T., Carrère S., Cesbron S., Chen N.W.G., Cociancich S., Darrasse A., Denancé N., Saux M.F., Gagnevin L., Koebnik R., Lauber E., Noël L.D., Pieretti I., Portier P., Pruvost O., Rieux A., Robène I., Royer M., Szurek B., Verdier V., Vernière C. 2016. Using ecology, physiology, and genomics to understand host specificity in Xanthomonas. Annual Review of Phytopathology 54 (1): 163–187. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annure....
Kado C.I., Heskett M.G. 1970. Selective media for isolation of Agrobacterium, Corynebacterium, Erwinia, Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas. Phytopathology 60: 969–979. https://www.apsnet.org/publica....
Luna E., Bruce J.A.B., Roberts M.R.R., Flors V., Ton V.F.J. 2012. Next-generation systemic acquired resistance. Plant Plysiology 158: 884–853. http://www.plantphysiol.org/co....
Mandani K.K., Scholthof K.B.G. 2013. Plant immune responses against viruses: how does a virus cause disease? The Plant Cell 25: 1489–1505. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1105/tpc.11....
Mates A. de P.K., Pontes N. de C., Halfeld-Vieira B.A. 2019. Bacillus velezensis GF267 as a multi-site antagonist for the control of tomato bacterial spot. Biological Control 137: 104013. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bi....
Mello S.C., Takatsu A., Lopes C.A. 1997. Diagrammatic scale for evaluation of tomato bacterial spot. Fitopatologia Brasileira 22 (3): 447–448.
Meziane H., Van Der S.L., Van Loon L.C., Hofte M., Bakker P.A.H.M. 2005. Determinants of Pseudomonas putida WCS358 involved in inducing systemic resistance in plants. Molecular Plant Pathology 6: 177–185. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1364....
Moraes W.B.C. 1992. Alternative control of phytopathogens. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira 27: 175–190. (in Portuguese).
Newman M.A., Sundelin T., Nielsen J.T., Erbs G. 2013. MAMP (microbe-associated molecular pattern) triggered immunity in plants. Frontiers in Plant Science 4: 139–152.
Oliveira L.C., Ishida A.K.N., Damasceno Filho A.S., Costa R.C., Silva C.T.B., Piedade A.M. 2011. Variability of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. passiforae in the State of Pará. Tropical Plant Pathology 36: 537. (in Portuguese).
Pascholati S.F., Fialho M.B. 2005. In vitro effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on Guignardia citricarpa, the causal agent of citrus black spot. p. 100. In: XXXVIII Congresso Brasileiro de Fitopatologia. Fitopatologia Brasileira, Brasília, Brazil. (in Portuguese).
Pascholati S.F., Leite B. 1995. Host: resistance mechanisms. p. 365–392. In: “Manual de Fitopatologia: princípios e conceitos” (A. Bergamin Filho, H. Kimati, K. Amorim, eds.). 4th ed. Agronômica Ceres, São Paulo, Brazil. (in Portuguese).
Pascholati S.F., Toffan L. 2007. Resistance induction against phytopathogens in tree species. p. 59–66. In: “Resistance Induction in Plants to Pathogens” (F.A. Rodrigues, R.S. Romeiro da, eds.). UFV, Viçosa, Brazil.
Proietti S., Giangrande C., Ampresano P., Pucci P., Bertini L., Caporale C., Caruso C. 2014. Xanthomonas campestris lipopoligosaccharides trigger innate immunity and oxidative burst in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 85: 51–62. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plap....
Ranf S. 2016. Immune sensing of lipopolysaccharide in plants and animals: same but different. PLoS Pathogens 12: 1–7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journa....
Sousa C.A.S., Junior M.A.L., Fracetto G.G.M., Freire F.J., Sobral J.K. 2016. Evaluation methods used for phosphatesolubilizing bacteria. African Journal of Biotechnology 15: 1796–805. DOI: 10.5897/AJB2015.15020.
Strayer-Scherer A., Liao Y.Y., Young M., Ritchie L., Vallad G.E., Santra S., Freeman J.H., Clark D., Jones J.B., Paret M.L. 2018. Advanced copper composites against copper-tolerant Xanthomonas perforans and tomato bacterial spot. Phytopathology 108: 196–205. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-....
Zhou B., Peng K., Chu Z., Wanng S., Zhang O. 2003. Identification of differentially expressed genes during disease resistance response from rice by cDNA arrays. In: “Advances in Rice Genetics” (G.S. Kush, D.S. Brar, B. Hardy, eds.). IRRI: Manila, 642 pp.