Surface water retention of leaves and fruits of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) and sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.), was evaluated under controlled environmental conditions in order to determine the retention potential at different growth stages. Dipping and spraying, with and without non-ionic surfactant, were used as application systems. Water retention was expressed as the ratio between the weight difference of the organ before and post application and organ weight before application. Leaf water retention by dipping was 62 and 64% for ‘Royal Gala’ and ‘Fuji’ apples, respectively, and 37 and 50% by spraying. The surfactant tended to reduce foliar water retention by spraying on both species. An exponential reduction of fruit water retention was observed during their growth. Fruit dipping generated the highest water retention, with values of 50% at the earliest stage. Then, water retention stabilized at 1–2%, when the apples and sweet cherries diameter reached 25 and 15 mm, respectively, despite dipping or spraying. The surfactant tended to increase water retention at early fruit stages and to reduce it with fruit growth. These results can be useful for estimating the potential residue on leaves and fruits in apple and sweet cherry trees, in both the orchard (spraying) and the packing house (dipping).
Zbigniew Czaczyk
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
Arvidsson T., Bergström L., Kreuger J. 2011. Spray drift as influenced by meteorological and technical factors. Pest Management Science 67 (5): 586–598. DOI: 10.1002/ps.2114.
Bahrouni H., Chaabane H., Marzougui N., Meriem S.B., Houcine B., Abdallah M.A.B. 2021. Effect of sprayer parameters and wind speed on spray retention and soil deposits of pesticides: Case of artichoke cultivar. Plant Protection Science 57 (4): 333–343. DOI: 10.17221/29/2021-PPS.
Basu S., Luthra J., Nigam K.D.P. 2002. The effects of surfactants on adhesion spreading and retention of herbicide droplet on the surface of the leaves and seeds. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B 37 (4): 331–344. DOI: 10.1081/PFC-120004474.
Bringe K., Schumacher C.F., Schmitz-Eiberger M., Steiner U., Oerke E.C. 2006. Ontogenetic variation in chemical and physical characteristics of adaxial apple leaf surfaces. Phytochemistry 67 (2): 161–170. DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2005.10.018.
Cooper J.A., Hall F.R. 1993. Effect of surface tension on the retention of various pesticides by apple leaves. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B 28 (5): 487–503. DOI: 10.1080/03601239309372838.
De Ruiter H., Uffing A.J., Meinen E., Prins A. 1990. Influence of surfactants and plant species on leaf retention of spray solutions. Weed Science 38 (6): 567–572. DOI: 10.1017/s004317450005150x.
Dorr G.J., Forster W.A., Mayo L.C., McCue S.W., Kempthorne D.M., Hanan J., Turner I.W., Belward J.A., Young J., Zabkiewicz J.A. 2016. Spray retention on whole plants: Modelling, simulations and experiments. Crop Protection 88: 118–130. DOI: 10.1016/j.cropro.2016.06.003.
Duga A.T., Ruysen K., Dekeyser D., Nuyttens D., Bylemans D., Nicolai B.M., Verboven P. 2015. Spray deposition profiles in pome fruit trees: Effects of sprayer design, training system and tree canopy characteristics. Crop Protection 67: 200–213. DOI: 10.1016/j.cropro.2014.10.016.
Forster W.A., Kimberley M.O., Steele K.D., Haslett M.R., Zabkiewicz J.A. 2006. Spray retention models for arable crops. Journal of ASTM International 3 (6): 1–10. DOI: 10.1520/JAI13528.
Leca A., Rouby F., Saudreau M., Lacointe A. 2020. Apple leaf wettability variability as a function of genotype and apple scab susceptibility. Scientia Horticulturae 260: 108890. DOI: 10.1016/j.scienta.2019.108890.
Massinon M., De CockOuled S., Salah S.O.T., Lebeau F. 2015. Computer simulations of spray retention by a 3D barley plant: effect of formulation surface tension. Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences 80: 313–321.
Massinon M., Lebeau F. 2013. Review of physicochemical processes involved in agrochemical spray retention. Biotechnology, Agronomy and Society and Environment 17: 494–504.
Musiu E.M., Qi L., Wu Y. 2019. Spray deposition and distribution on 227 the targets and losses to the ground as affected by application volume rate, airflow rate and target position. Crop Protection 116: 170–180. DOI: 10.1016/j.cropro.2018.10.019.
Peschel S., Beyer M., Knoche M. 2003. Surface characteristics of sweet cherry fruit: stomata number, distribution, functionality and surface wetting. Scientia Horticulturae 97 (3–4): 265–278. DOI: 10.1016/S0304-4238(02)00207-8.
Picchioni G.A., Weinbaum S.A., Brown P.H. 1995. Retention and the kinetics of uptake and export of foliage-applied, labeled boron by apple, pear, prune, and sweet cherry leaves. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 120: 28–35. DOI: 10.21273/jashs.120.1.28.
Rüegg J., Viret O., Raisigl U. 1999. Adaptation of spray dosage in stone-fruit orchards on the basis of tree row volume. EPPO Bulletin 29 (1–2): 103–110. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2338.1999.tb00803.x.
Siegfried W., Viret O., Huber B., Wohlhauser R. 2007. Dosage of plant protection products adapted to leaf area index in viticulture. Crop Protection 26 (2): 73–82. DOI: 10.1016/j.cropro.2006.04.002.
Stover E.W., Greene D.W. 2005. Environmental effects on the performance of foliar applied plant growth regulators: A review focusing on tree fruits. HortTechnology 15 (2): 214–221. DOI: 10.21273/horttech.15.2.0214.
Tanou G., Ziogas V., Molassiotis A. 2017. Foliar nutrition, biostimulants and prime-like dynamics in fruit tree physiology: new insights on an old topic. Frontiers in Plant Science 8: 75. DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2017.00075.
Vallet A., Tinet C. 2013. Characteristics of droplets from single and twin jet air induction nozzles: A preliminary investigation. Crop Protection 48: 63–68. DOI: 10.1016/j.cropro.2013.02.010.
Wang C.J., Liu Z.Q. 2007. Foliar uptake of pesticides – present status and future challenge. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 87 (1): 1–8. DOI: 10.1016/j.pestbp.2006.04.004.
Xin Y., Jin Z., Chen F., Lai S., Yang H. 2020. Effect of chitosan coatings on the evolution of sodium carbonate-soluble pectin during sweet cherry softening under non-isothermal conditions. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 151: 267–275. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.03.104.
Yao C., Myung K., Wang N., Johnson A. 2014. Spray retention of crop protection agrochemicals on the plant surface. p. 1–22. In: “Retention, Uptake, and Translocation of Agrochemicals in Plants” (K. Myung, N.M. Satchivi, C.K. Kingston, eds.) ACS Symposium Series, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, USA. DOI: 10.1021/bk-2014-1171.ch001.
Yu Y., Zhu H., Frantz J.M., Reding M.E., Chan K.C., Ozkan H.E. 2009. Evaporation and coverage area of pesticide droplets on hairy and waxy leaves. Biosystems Engineering 104 (3): 324–334. DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2009.08.006.
Yuri J.A., Jorquera Y., Lepe V., Moggia C., Neira A. 2006. Estimating deposition of foliarly applied compounds on apple trees. Acta Horticulturae 721: 239–244. DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2006.721.32.
Ziani K., Oses J., Coma V., Maté J.I. 2008. Effect of the presence of glycerol and Tween 20 on the chemical and physical properties of films based on chitosan with different degree of deacetylation. LWT-Food Science and Technology 41 (10): 2159–2165. DOI: 10.1016/j.lwt.2007.11.023.