Antifungal activity of essential oils on Aspergillus parasiticus isolated from peanuts
More details
Hide details
Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144, USA
Department of Studies in Microbiology, University of Mysore, Mysore-570006, Karnataka, India
Submission date: 2015-09-23
Acceptance date: 2016-04-22
Corresponding author
Premila N. Achar
Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144, USA
Journal of Plant Protection Research 2016;56(2):139–142
Aspergillus parasiticus is one of the most common fungi which contaminates peanuts by destroying peanut shells before they are harvested and the fungus produces aflatoxins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activities of seventeen essential oils on the growth of the aflatoxigenic form of A. parasiticus in contaminated peanuts from commercial outlets in Georgia. The agar dilution method was used to test the antifungal activity of essential oils against this form of A. parasiticus at various concentrations: 500; 1,000; 1,500; 2,000; 2,500 ppm. Among the seventeen essential oils tested, the antifungal effect of cinnamon, lemongrass, clove and thyme resulted in complete inhibition of mycelial growth. Cinnamon oil inhibited mycelial growth at ≥ 1,000 ppm, lemongrass and clove oils at ≥ 1,500 ppm and thyme at 2,500 ppm. However, cedar wood, citronella, cumin and peppermint oils showed partial inhibition of mycelial growth. Eucalyptus oil, on the other hand, had less antifungal properties against growth of A. parasiticus, irrespective of its concentration. Our results indicate that the aflatoxigenic form of A. parasiticus is sensitive to selected essential oils, especially cinnamon. These findings clearly indicate that essential oils may find a practical application in controlling the growth of A. parasiticus in stored peanuts.
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
Abbas H.K., Zablotowicz R.M., Weaver M.A., Horn B.W., Shier W.T. 2005. Relationships between aflatoxin production and sclerotia formation among isolates of Aspergillus section Flavi from the Mississippi Delta. European Journal of Plant Pathology 112 (3): 283–287.
Achar P.N., Sanchez A. 2006. Effects of substrate and temperature on growth of Aspergillus flavus in peanuts from Georgia. Georgia Journal of Science 64 (2): 76–81.
Achar P.N., Hermetz K., Rao S., Apkarian R., Taylor J. 2009. Microscopic studies on the Aspergillus flavus infected kernels of commercial peanuts in Georgia. Ecotoxicological Environmental Safety 72 (8): 2115–2120.
Hlebowicz J., Darwiche G., Björgell O., Almer L.O. 2007. Effect of cinnamon on postprandial blood glucose, gastric emptying, and satiety in healthy subjects. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 85 (6): 1552–1556.
Basilico M.Z., Basilico J.C. 1999. Inhibitory effect of some spice and essential oils on Aspergillus ochraceus NRRL 3174 growth and ochratoxin production. Letters in Applied Microbiology 29 (4): 238–241.
Conner D.E., Beuchat L.R. 1984. Effects of essential oils from plants on growth of food spoilage yeasts. Journal of Food Science 49 (2): 429–434.
Daferera D.J., Ziogas B.N., Polissiou M.G. 2003. The effectiveness of plant essential oils on the growth of Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium spp. and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. Crop Protection 22 (1): 39–44.
Davidson P.M. 2001. Chemical preservatives and naturally antimicrobial compounds. p. 593–628. In: “Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers Beuchat” (M.P. Doyle, L.R. Beuchat, T.J. Montville, eds.). ASM Press, Washington, DC, USA, 872 pp.
El-Nagerabi S.A.F., Al-Bahry S.N., Elshafie A.E., AlHilali S. 2012. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract and Nigella sativa oil on the growth and aflatoxin B1 production of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus strains. Food Control 25 (1): 59–63.
Elshafie S.Z.B., El Mubarak A., El-Nagerabi S.A., Elshafie A.E. 2010. Aflatoxin B1 contamination of traditionally processed peanuts butter for human consumption in Sudan. Mycopathologia 171 (6): 435–439.
Gang Y. 2004. Peanut Production and Utilization in the People’s Republic of China. Peanut in Local and Global Food Systems Series Report No. 4, University of Georgia, Athens, USA, 26 pp.
Inouye S., Tsuruoka T., Watanabe M., Takeo K., Akao M., Nishiyama Y., Yamaguchi H. 2000. Inhibitory effect of essential oils on the growth of Aspergillus fumigatus by vapour contact. Mycoses 43 (1–2): 17–23.
Khan A., Safdar M., Khan M.M.A., Khattak K.N., Anderson R.A. 2003. Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 26: 3215–3218.
Klich M.A. 2002. Identification of Common Aspergillus Species. Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 116 pp.
Klich M.A. 2007. Aspergillus flavus: the major producer of aflatoxin. Molecular Plant Pathology 8 (6): 713–722.
Lambert R.J.W., Skandamis P.N., Coote P.J., Nychas G.J.E. 2001. A study of the minimum inhibitory concentration and mode of action of oregano essential oil, thymol and carvacrol. Journal of Applied Microbiology 91 (3): 453–462.
Lis-Balchin M., Deans S.G. 1997. Bioactivity of selected plant essential oils against Listeria monocytogenes. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 82 (6): 759–762.
Mahfouz M., Elsayed A. 1995. Effect of essential oils of some medicinal plants on phytonematodes. Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde, Pflanzenschutz, Umweltschutz 68 (4): 82–84.
Montes-Belmont R., Carvajal M. 1998. Control of Aspergillus flavus in maize with plant essential oils and their components. Journal of Food Protection 61 (5): 616–619.
Nuchas G.E., Tassou C.C. 2000. Traditional preservatives-oils and spices. p. 1717–1722. In: “Encyclopedia of Food Microbiology” (R.K. Robinson, C.A. Batt, P.D. Patel, eds.). Academic Press, London, UK, 2372 pp.
Prindle R.F., Wright E.S. 1977. Phenolic compounds. p. 115–118. In: “Disinfection, Sterilization and Preservation” (S.S. Block, ed.). Lea and Febiger, Pennsylvania, USA, 1481 pp.
Samson R.A., Hoekstra E.S., Frisvad J.C. 2004. Introduction to Food and Airborne Fungi. 7th ed. Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures (CBS), Utrecht, The Netherlands, 389 pp.
Sharma N., Tripathi A. 2006. Fungitoxicity of the essential oil of Citrus sinensis on post-harvest pathogens. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 22 (6): 587–593.
Sokmen A., Gulluce M., Akpulat H.A., Daferera D., Tepe B., Polissiou M., Sokmen M., Sahin F. 2004. The in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oils and methanol extracts of endemic Thymus spathulifolius. Food Control 15 (8): 627–634.
Soliman K.M., Badeaa R.I. 2002. Effect of oil extracted from some medicinal plants on different mycotoxigenic fungi. Food and Chemical Toxicology 40 (11): 1669–1675.
Tepe B., Daferera D., Sokmen A., Sokmen M., Polissiou M. 2005. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and various extracts of Salvia tomentosa Miller (Lamiaceae). Food Chemistry 90 (3): 333–340.
Tzortzakis N.G., Economakis C.D. 2007. Antifungal activity of lemongrass (Cympopogon citratus L.) essential oil against key postharvest pathogens. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 8 (2): 253–258.
Valero M., Salmeron M.C. 2003. Antibacterial activity of 11 essential oils against Bacillus cereus in tyndallized carrot broth. International Journal of Food Microbiology 85 (1–2): 73–81.
Viuda-Martos M., Ruiz-Navajas Y., Fernandez-Lopez J., Perez-Alvarez J.A. 2007. Antifungal activities of thyme, clove and oregano essential oils. Journal of Food Safety 27 (1): 91–101.