Evaluation of a solid stream radial nozzle on fixed-wing aircraft, for penetration of spray within a soybean canopy
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United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, P.O. Box 350, Stoneville, Mississippi, USA
Submission date: 2013-10-23
Acceptance date: 2014-02-03
Corresponding author
Steven James Thomson
United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, P.O. Box 350, Stoneville, Mississippi, USA
Journal of Plant Protection Research 2014;54(1):96-101
Experiments were conducted to evaluate the Accu-Flo multiple orifice nozzle for penetration of spray into a soybean (Glycine max L.) canopy by comparing results to those from a popular straight stream nozzle and rotary atomizer. A mixture of water + Induce® adjuvant was applied at three different spray release heights in a random sequence, using an Air Tractor 402-B agricultural aircraft. Sampler stands were placed at twenty-four locations in the field. Water sensitive paper (WSP) cards were clipped onto rigid stands just above the canopy and 30 cm off the ground within the canopy. Weather data were recorded using two different stations on-site. Wind was predominantly from the west and parallel to the direction of the spray runs. The spray delivery systems compared were the Accu-Flo nozzles, (64 needle 0.020 opening), CP®-09 straight stream with 5 degree deflection, and Micronair® AU5000 atomisers (14 mesh screen) at a low volume spray rate of 18.7 l/ha. A total of 54 spray runs were made over three days, and heights were varied at 3.7 m, 4.9 m and 6.1 m. Water sensitive papers were scanned and analysed for coverage per unit card area using an image analysis system. Altitude and [Nozzle X Altitude] interaction were significant effects on coverage at the 0.01 and 0.07 significance levels, respectively, for the top cards. Nozzle type was not a significant effect on coverage for the top cards, but was significant at the 0.01 level for the bottom cards. Altitude alone had no obvious effect on coverage for the bottom cards, although it had an effect for the top cards. The highest percentage area of spray coverage was observed from the Accu-Flo nozzles, especially for the bottom cards. Average spray coverage from the Accu-Flo nozzles was 1.7 times higher than coverage from the CP® nozzles or Micronair® atomisers in the lower portion of the canopy.
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
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