Differences between organically grown varieties of spring wheat, in response to weed competition and yield
More details
Hide details
Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation-State Research Institute, Department of Systems and Economics of Crop Production, Czartoryskich 8, 24-100 Puławy, Poland
Beata Feledyn-Szewczyk
Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation-State Research Institute, Department of Systems and Economics of Crop Production, Czartoryskich 8, 24-100 Puławy, Poland
Submission date: 2015-02-17
Acceptance date: 2015-06-09
Journal of Plant Protection Research 2015;55(3):254–259
When growing wheat, one of the non-chemical methods of weed regulation is to choose wheat varieties which have a high ability to compete with weeds. The first aim of the research was the estimation of the relationships between the morphological features and canopy parameters of six spring wheat varieties. The second aim was the estimation of the varieties’ competitive ability against weeds. The third aim was the estimation of the grain yield of the six varieties. The experiment was carried out in the 2011–2013 time period, on fields which had been organically managed since 1994. Different features affected the weed infestation levels of the spring wheat varieties. For Bombona, negative correlations between the number of weeds and the height, dry matter of wheat, and wheat density, were proved. For Brawura, Hewilla, and Żura, the height, number of tillers, and dry matter of wheat were the main factors influencing weed abundance. A strong negative correlation between the number of weeds and the dry matter of wheat was found for Parabola. Cluster analysis indicated that Bombona and Brawura were the most competitive against weeds, while Monsun and Parabola were characterized as being the least competitive against weeds. Weed number significantly affected the grain yield of spring wheat (r = –0.418). The grain yield was positively correlated with the number of tillers (r = 0.459) and ears (r = 0.355), and the height (r = 0.534) and wheat dry matter (r = 0.411). Bombona and Brawura were the lowest yielding varieties (3.03 and 3.20 t ∙ ha–1, respectively), whereas the highest yield was achieved by Żura (3.82 t ∙ ha–1, on average).
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
Balyan R.S., Malik R.K., Panwar R.S., Singh S. 1991. Competitive ability of winter wheat cultivars with wild oat (Avena ludoviciana). Weed Science 39 (2): 154–158.
Bertholdsson N-O. 2005. Early vigour and allelopathy – two useful traits for enhanced barley and wheat competitiveness against weeds. Weed Research 45 (2): 94–102.
Challaiah O., Burnside O.C., Wicks G.A., Johnson V.A. 1986. Competition between winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties and downy brome (Bromus tectorum). Weed Science 34 (5): 689–693.
Christensen S. 1995. Weed suppression ability of spring barley varieties. Weed Results 35 (4): 241–247.
Coleman R.D., Gill G.S., Rebetzke G.J. 2001. Identification of quantitative trait loci for traits conferring weed competitiveness in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 52 (12): 1235–1246.
Cosser N.D., Gooding J.M., Thompson A.J., Froud-Williams R.J. 1997. Competitive ability and tolerance of organically grown wheat cultivars to natural weed infestations. Annals of Applied Biology 130 (3): 523–535.
Deveikyte I., Semaškiene R., Leistrumaite A. 2008. The competition between cereals and weeds under the conditions of organic agriculture. Zemdirbyste-Agriculture 95 (2): 3–15.
Didon U.M.E. 2002. Variation between barley cultivars in early response to weed competition. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 188 (3): 176–184.
Eisele J.-A., Köpke U. 1997. Choice of cultivars in organic farming: New Criteria for Winter Wheat Ideotypes. 1: Light conditions in stands of winter wheat affected by morphological features of different varieties. Pflanzenbauwissenschaften 1: 19–24.
European Union 2010. Common Catalogue of Varieties of Agricultural Plant Species. 29th complete edition. Official Journal of the European Union 2010/C 337 A/01 of 14 December 2010, 664 pp.
Feledyn-Szewczyk B. 2013. The influence of morphological features of spelt wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta) and common wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. vulgare) varieties on the competitiveness against weeds in organic farming system. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment 11 (1): 416–421.
Hoad S., Topp C., Davies K. 2008. Selection of cereals for weed suppression in organic agriculture: a method based on cultivar sensitivity to weed growth. Euphytica 163 (3): 355–366.
Huel D.G., Hucl P. 1996. Genotypic variation for competitive ability in spring wheat. Plant Breeding 115: 325–329.
IUSS Working Group WRB 2006. World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2006. 2nd ed., World Soil Resources Reports No. 103, FAO, Rome, 132 pp.
Leistrumaite A., Liatukas Ž., Razbadauskiene K. 2009. The spring cereals traits of soil cover, disease resistance and yielding essential for organic growing. Agronomy Research 7 (Special issue I): 374–380.
Lemerle D., Verbeek B., Cousens R.D., Coombes N.E. 1996. The potential for selecting wheat varieties strongly competitive against weeds. Weed Research 36 (6): 505–513.
Lemerle D., Verbeek B., Orchard B. 2001. Ranking the ability of wheat varieties to compete with Lolium rigidum. Weed Research 41 (3): 197–209.
Lemerle D., Smith A., Verbeek B., Koetz E., Lockley P., Martin P. 2006. Incremental crop tolerance to weeds: A measure for selecting competitive ability in Australian wheats. Euphytica 149 (1–2): 85–95.
Østergård H., Kristensen K., Hovmøller M., Willas J. 2006. Genetic potential for grain yield in spring barley varieties and variety mixtures in variable organic environments. p. 372–373. In: “Organic farming and European rural development”. Proceedings of the European Joint Organic Congress, Odense, Denmark, 30–31 May 2006.
Sadowski T., Tyburski J. 2003. Flora segetalna pszenicy jarej z upraw ekologicznych i konwencjonalnych. [Segetal flora of spring wheat on ecological and conventional farms]. Zeszyty Problemowe Postępów Nauk Rolniczych 490: 219–226. (in Polish).
Seavers G.P., Wright K.J. 1999. Crop canopy development and structure influence weed suppression. Weed Research 39 (4): 319–328.
Siddique K.H., Belford R.K. 1989. Growth, development and light interception of old and modern wheat cultivars in a mediterranean-type environment. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 40 (3): 473–487.
Statgraphics Plus for Windows version 2.1. 1996. Statistical Graphics Corporation, Rockvile, USA.Tamm I., Tamm Ü., Ingver A. 2009. Spring cereals performance in organic and conventional cultivation. Agronomy Research 7 (Special issue I): 522–527.
Tyburski J., Rychcik B., Łada M. 2010. Plonowanie wybranych odmian pszenicy ozimej uprawianej w systemie rolnictwa ekologicznego na glebie ciężkiej. [Yielding of selected varieties of winter wheat grown in organic system on heavy soil]. Fragmenta Agronomica 27 (1): 186–194. (in Polish).
Watson P.R., Derksen D.A., van Acker R.C. 2006. The ability of 29 barley cultivars to compete and withstand competition. Weed Science 54 (4): 783–792.
Worthington M., Reberg-Horton C. 2013. Breeding cereal crops for enhanced weed suppression: optimizing allelopathy and competitive ability. Journal of Chemical Ecology 39 (2): 213–231.
Wolfe M.S., Baresel J.P., Desclaux D., Goldringer I., Hoad S., Kovacs G., Löschenberger F., Miedaner T., Østergård H., Lamberts van Bueren E.T. 2008. Developments in breeding cereals for organic agriculture. Euphytica 163 (3): 323–346.
Zadoks J.C., Chang T.T., Konzak C.F. 1974. A decimal code for the growth stages of cereals. Weed Research 14 (6): 415–421.