First report of Pythium aphanidermatum infecting tomato in Egypt and controlling it using biogenic silver nanoparticles
More details
Hide details
Plant Pathology, National Research Centre, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.
Agricultural Microbiology Department, National Research Centre, 33 El-Buhouth St., (Former El-Tahrir) 12622, Dokki, Giza, Egypt
Submission date: 2017-12-03
Acceptance date: 2018-01-15
Journal of Plant Protection Research 2018;58(2):137–151
A number of 16 fungal isolates were recovered from tomato plants displaying symptoms of wilting, dead plant, root rot with crown and stem rot. These isolates were classified as belonging to 6 species, namely: Alternaria solani, Chaetomium globosum, Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium sp. and Rhizoctonia solani. Isolates of Pythium were prevalence and demonstrated to be high pathogenic than the other fungal isolates. It causes damping-off, root rot, sudden death, stem rot and fruit rot. The pathogen was identified as Pythium aphanidermatum based on morphological, cultural, and molecular characteristics. Biogenic silver nanoparticles were produced using Fusarium oxysporum strain and characterized by TEM microscopy. The size of these particles was ranged between 10-30 nm and the shape was spherical. In vitro, biogenic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) showed antifungal activity against P. aphanidermatum. In greenhouse and field experiments, AgNPs treatment significantly reduced the incidence of sudden death of tomato plants due to root rot produced by P. aphanidermatum compared to the control. All of the assayed treatments were effective and the treatment of root dipping plus soil drenching was the most effective one. To the best of our knowledge, this report describes the first time that P. aphanidermatum was observed on tomato in Egypt, and the possibility of its control with AgNPs.
Ibrahim Elshahawy   
Plant Pathology, National Research Centre, National Research Centre, 33 El-Buhouth St., (Former El-Tahrir) 12622, Dokki, Giza, Egypt., National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt
1. Abd-El-Khair H., Haggag K.H.E., Elshahawy I.E. 2016. Soil application of Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis for suppression of Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani and yield enhancement in peanut. International Journal of ChemTech Research 9 (6): 142–152.
2. Agrios G. N. 2005. Plant Pathology (Plant diseases caused by fungi). 5th ed. Academic Press, San Diego, 922 pp.
3. Ahmad P., Mukherjee S., Senapati D., Mandal M.I., Khan R., Kumar M. 2002. Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 28: 313–318. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0927-....
4. Barakat K.M., Hassan S.W.M., Darwesh O.M. 2017. Biosurfactant production by haloalkaliphilic Bacillus strains isolated from Red Sea, Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research 43 (2017): 205–211. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ej....
5. Barakat K.M., Mattar M.Z., Sabae S.Z., Darwesh O.M., Hassan S.H. 2015. Production and characterization of bioactive pyocyanin pigment by marine Pseudomonas aeruginosa OSh1. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences 6 (5): 933–943.
6. Barnett H.L., Hunter B.B. 1972. Illustrated Genera of Imperfect Fungi. Burgess Publ. Com., Minneapolis, 241 pp.
7. Bekheit H., Latif M. 2015. Tomato Farmer Field Schools in Egypt. Available on: http://www.un.org.eg/docs/SALA.... [Accessed: October 19, 2017].
8. Benito C., Figueira A.M., Zaragoza C., Gallego F.J., de la Pena A. 1993. Rapid identification of Triticeae genotypes from single seeds using the polymerase chain reaction. Plant Molecular Biology 21 (1): 181–183. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/bf0003....
9. Bonants P., Hagenaar-de Weerdt M., van Gent-Pelzer M., Lacourt I., Dooke D.E.L., Duncan M. 1997. Detection and identification of Phytophthora fragariae Hickman by the polymerase chain reaction. European Journal of Plant Pathology 103: 345–355.
10. Booth C. 1971. The Genus Fusarium. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, University of Michigan, England, 237 pp.
11. Bragg P.D., Rainnie D.J. 1974. The effect of silver ions on the respiratory chains of Escherichia coli. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 20: 883–889.
12. Buhroo A.A., Nisa G., Asrafuzzaman S., Prasad R., Rasheed R., Bhattacharyya A. 2017. Biogenic silver nanoparticles from Trichodesma indicum aqueous leaf extract against Mythimna separata and evaluation of its larvicidal efficacy. Journal of Plant Protection Research 57 (2): 194–200. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jppr-2....
13. Chae D.H., De Jin R., Hwangbo H., Kim Y.W., Kim Y.C., Park R.D., Krishnan H.B., Kim K.Y. 2006. Control of late blight (Phytophthora capsici) in pepper plant with a compost containing a multitude of chitinase-producing bacteria. Bio-Control 51: 339–351.
14. Christy Jeyaseelan E., Tharmila S., Niranjan K. 2012. Antagonistic activity of Trichoderma spp. and Bacillus spp. against Pythium aphanidermatum isolated from tomato damping off. Archives of Applied Science Research 4 (4): 1623–1627.
15. El-Naggar N., Abdelwahed N.A.M., Darwesh O.M.M. 2014. Fabrication of biogenic antimicrobial silver nanoparticles by Streptomyces aegyptia NEAE 102 as eco-friendly nanofactory. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 24 (4): 453–464. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4014/jmb.....
16. Elshahawy I.E., Saied N.M., Morsy A.A. 2017. Fusarium proliferatum, the main cause of clove rot during storage, reduces clove germination and causes wilt of established garlic plants. Journal of Plant Pathology 99 (1): 81–89. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4454/jpp.....
  CrossRef   WWW
17. Elshahawy I.E., Haggag Karima H.E., Abd-El-Khair H. 2016. Compatibility of Trichoderma spp. with seven chemical fungicides used in the control of soil borne plant pathogens. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences 7 (1): 1772–1785.
18. Florence U. 2011. Management of tomato damping-off caused by Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp. through integrated approach. Dissertation, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, 80 pp.
19. Ghonim M.I. 1999. Induction of systemic resistance against Fusarium wilting in tomato by seed treatment with the biocontrol agent Bacillus subtilis. Bulletin Faculty of Agriculture Cairo University 50: 313–328.
20. Gilman J.B. 1957. A Manual of Soil Fungi. Iowa State College Press, USA, 450 pp.
21. Hamza A., Mohamed A., Derbalah A. 2016. Unconventional alternatives for control of tomato root rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani under greenhouse conditions. Journal of Plant Protection Research 56 (3): 298–305. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jppr-2....
22. Jayaraj J., Radhakrishnan N.V., Kannan R., Sakthivel K., Suganya D., Venkatesan S., Velazhahan R. 2005. Development of new formulations of Bacillus subtilis for management of tomato damping-off caused by Pythium aphanidermatum. Biocontrol Science and Technology 15 (1): 55–65. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/095831....
23. Jo Y.K., Kim B.H., Jung G. 2009. Antifungal activity of silver ions and nanoparticles on phytopathogenic fungi. Plant Disease 93: 1037–1043. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-9....
24. Kheiralla Z.H., Hewedy M.A., Mohammed H.R., Darwesh O.M. 2016. Isolation of pigment producing actinomycetes from rhizosphere soil and application it in textiles dyeing. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Science 7 (5): 2128– 2136.
25. Kim J.S., Kuk E., Yu K.N. 2007. Antimicrobial effects of silver nanoparticles. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine 3 (1): 95–101. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nano....
26. Kim S.W., Jung J.H., Lamsal K., Kim Y.S., Min J.S., Lee Y.S. 2012. Antifungal effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against various plant pathogenic fungi. Mycobiology 40 (1): 53–58. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5941/MYCO.2....
27. Kipngeno P., Losenge T., Maina N., Kahangi E., Juma P. 2015. Efficacy of Bacillus subtilis and Trichoderma asperellum against Pythium aphanidermatum in tomatoes. Biological Control 90: 92–95. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bioc....
28. Le H.T., Black L.L., Sikora R.A. 2003. Role of Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzpatrick in tomato sudden death in the tropics with emphasis on integrated disease management. Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences 68: 463–474.
29. Manjula P. 2008. Biological control of damping-off disease of cole crops. Dissertation, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, 84 pp.
30. Min J.S., Kim K.S., Kim S.W., Jung J.H., Lamsal K., Kim S.B., Jung M., Lee Y.S. 2009. Effects of colloidal silver nanoparticles on sclerotium-forming phytopathogenic fungi. Plant Pathology Journal 25 (4): 376–380. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5423/PPJ.20....
31. Mohamed H.A., Nasr N.F., Abdelkreem K.I. 2015. Management of tomato damping-off disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani using chemical and biological degradable olive mill waste water. Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control 25 (2): 367–377.
32. Morsy E.M., Abdel-Kawi K.A., Khalil M.N.A. 2009. Efficiency of Trichoderma viride and Bacillus subtilis as biocontrol agents against Fusarium solani on tomato plants. Egyptian Journal of Phytopathology 37 (1): 47–57.
33. Morsy A.A., Elshahawy I.E. 2016. Anthracnose of lucky bamboo Dracaena sanderiana caused by the fungus Colletotrichum dracaenophilum in Egypt. Journal of Advanced Research 7: 327–335. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ja....
34. Narayanan K.B., Sakthivel N. 2010. Biological synthesis of metal nanoparticles by microbes. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science 156 (1–2): 1–13. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cis.....
35. Nelson E.B. 1987. Rapid germination of sporangia of Pythium species in response to volatiles from germination seeds. Phytopathology 77: 1108–1112. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1094/Phyto-....
36. Park H.J., Kim S.H., Kim H.J., Choi S.H. 2006. A new composition of nanosized silica-silver for control of various plant diseases. Plant Pathology Journal 22: 295–302.
37. Rai M., Yadav A., Gade A. 2009. Silver nanoparticles as a new generation of antimicrobials. Biotechnology Advances 27: 76–83.
38. Saad M.M. 2006. Destruction of Rhizoctonia solani and Phytophthora capsici causing tomato root-rot by Pseudomonas fluorescens lytic enzymes. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences 2: 274–281.
39. Shafique H.A., Sultana V., Ehteshamul-Haque S., Athar M. 2016. Management of soil-borne diseases of organic vegetables. Journal of Plant Protection Research 56 (3): 221–230.
40. Shenashen M., Derbalah A., Hamza A., Mohamed A., El Safty S. 2017. Recent trend in controlling root rot disease of tomato caused by Fusarium solani using aluminasilica nanoparticles. International Journal of Advanced Research in Biological Sciences 4 (6): 105–119. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22192/ija....
41. Sneh B., Burpee L., Qgoshi A. 1991. Identification of Rhizoctonia species. APS Press, USA, 133 pp.
42. Sondi I., Salopek-Sondi B. 2004. Silver nanoparticles as antimicrobial agent: a case study on Escherichia coli as a model for Gram negative bacteria. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 275 (1): 177–182.
43. Van der Plaats-Niterink A.J. 1981. Monogrpah of the Genus Pythium. Studies Mycology No. 21 Centra albareau vor Schimmel cultures Baarh, Netherlands, 242 pp.
44. West P.V., Appiah A.A., Gow N.A.R. 2003. Advances in research on oomycete root pathogens. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 62 (2): 99–113.
45. White T.J., Bruns T., Lee S., Taylor J. 1990. Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. p. 315–322. In: “PCR Protocols: A Guide to Methods and Applications” (M.A. Innis, D.H. Gelfand, J.J. Sninsky, T.J. White, eds.). Academic Press, San Diego, USA, 630 pp.
46. Yamanaka M., Hara K., Kudo J. 2005. Bactericidal actions of a silver ion solution on Escherichia coli, studied by energy filtering transmission electron microscopy and proteomic analysis. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 71: 7589–7593. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.71....