Formulations of Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas fluorescens for biocontrol of cantaloupe root rot caused by Fusarium solani
More details
Hide details
Plant Pathology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, 71526 Assiut, Egypt
Plant Pathology Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, 12655 Giza, Egypt
Nashwa Atef Sallam
Plant Pathology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, 71526 Assiut, Egypt
Submission date: 2013-01-21
Acceptance date: 2013-07-31
Journal of Plant Protection Research 2013;53(3):295–300
The aim of this study was to evaluate the different carrier formulations of antagonistic bacteria on incidence of root rot disease of cantaloupe. Twenty-seven isolates of bacteria isolated from rizosphere cantaloupe plants (collected from different localities of the Assiut Governorate, Egypt) were tested in vitro against the growth of Fusarium solani. The tested isolates exhibited varied percentages of mycelial inhibition of F. solani. The highly antagonistic bacteria isolates were identified as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The effect of talc based powder and wood flour as various carrier formulations of antagonistic bacteria were tested on incidence of cantaloupe root rot disease in greenhouse and field experiments. All tested carrier formulations of antagonistic bacteria significantly decreased the disease index percentage (p > 0.05) of root rot disease compared with the control, in greenhouse or in field experiments. Application of the wood flour formulation to the infested soil at the time of planting, gave the lowest disease (21.75%) index percentage compared to an application fifteen days before planting (26.83%). The reverse effect occurred in the case of the talc based powder formulation application. In field experiments, during the two growing seasons of 2009 and 2010, wood flour formulation gave the same effect in the reduction of the disease index when added before planting or at the time of planting to soil infested with the pathogen. However, application of the talc formulation at the time of planting showed the least disease index compared to when it was applied fifteen days before planting. In general, wood flour formulation significantly decreased the disease index when compared with the talc formulation. In all the formulations, a number of viable colonies of bioagents were decreased gradually by prolonging the storage time at 4°C. Storage time was prolonged up to five months. But in the case of B. subtilis on talc and B. cereus on wood flour formulations, storage time needed to be prolonged up to seven months.
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
Abouzeid N.M., El-Morsy G.A., Hassanein A.M. 1997. Major organisms causing root rot/ wilt and their relative importance on fababean, lentil and chickpea. Egypt. J. Agric. Res. 25 (6): 529–542.
Abouzeid N.M., El-Waki A.A., El-Sherif I.M., Amer M.I. 1990. Studies on root–rot and wilt of lentil and their control. Agric. Res. Pesriew. 68: 421–429.
Aegerter B.J., Gordon T.R., Davis R.M. 2000. Occurrence and pathogenicity of fungi associated with melon root rot and vine decline in California. Plant Dis. 84 (3): 224–230.
Ahmed J.S., Baker R. 1987. Competitive saprophytic ability and cellulolytic activity of rhizosphere competent mutants of Trichoderma harzianum. Phytopathology 77 (2): 358–362.
Ali N.I., Siddiqui L.A., Shaukat S.S., Zaki M.J. 2001. Survival of Pseudomonas aerugiginosa in various carious for the inhibition of root rot knot disease complex of mung bean. Phytopathol. Mediterran. 40 (1): 108–112.
Amer G.A., Utkhede R.S. 2000. Development of formulations of biological agents for management of root rot of lettuce and cucumber. Can. J. Microbiol. 46 (9): 809–816.
Booth C. 1971. Fungal Culture Media. p. 49–94. In: “Methods in Mcirobiology” (C. Booth, ed.). Academic Press; London, 186 pp.
Çiğdem K., Merih K. 2005. Effect of formulation on the viabilıty of biocontrol agent, Trıchoderma harzıanum conidia. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 4 (5): 483–486.
Coley-Smith J.R., Holt R.W. 1990. Long term sclerotia of Sclerotium cepivorum and Stromatinia gladioli. Plant Pathol. 39 (1): 58–69.
De Chial M., Ghysels B., Beatson S.A., Geoffroy V., Meyer J.M., Pattery T., Baysse C., Chablain P., Parsons Y.N., Winstanley C., Cordwell S.J., Cornelis. P. 2003. Identification of type II and type III pyoverdine receptors from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Microbiology 149 (4): 821–831.
Debode J., De Maeyer K., Perneel M., Pannecoucque J., De Backer G., HÖfte M. 2007. Biosurfactants are involved in the biological control of Verticillium microsclerotia by Pseudomonas spp. J. Appl. Microbiol. 103 (4): 1184–1196.
DeVay J.E., Garber R.H., Wakeman R.J. 1988. Field management of cotton seedling diseases in California using chemical and biological seed treatments. p. 29–35. In: Proc. Beltwiae Cotton Conference, National Cotton Council of Americana, Memphis, TN, USA.
Dhingra O.D., Sinclair J.B. 1995. Basic Plant Pathology Method. 2nd ed. Lewis Publishers, CRC Press, USA, 434 pp.
Diehl T., Fehrmann H. 1999.Wheat fusarioses: influence of infection date, tissue injury and aphids on leaf and ear attack. J. Plant Dis. Prot. 96: 393–40.
Domsch K.H., Gams W., Anderson T.H. 1980. Compondiuum of Soil Fungi. Academic Press, A Subbsidiary of Harcout Barce Jovanovich, Bublishers, London, 859 pp.
Gomez K.A., Gomez A.A. 1984. Statistical Procedures for Agriacultural Research. A. Lviley. Interscience Publication, New York, 678 pp.
Haas D., Defago G. 2005. Biological control of soil–born pathogens by fluorescent pseudomonads. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 3 (4): 307–319.
Howie W.J., Suslow T.V. 1991. Role of antibiotic biosynthesis in inhibition of Pythium ultimum in the cotton spermosphere by Pseudomonas fluorescens. Mol. Plant Microb. Interact. 4 (4): 393–399.
Jayaraj J., Radhakrishnan N.V., Velazhahan R. 2006. Development of formulations of Trichoderma harzianum strain M1 for control of damping – off of tomato caused by Pythium aphanidermatum. Phytopathol. Plant Prot. 39 (1): 1–8.
Kaulizakis M. 1997. Sub-tropical plant and olive trees. National Agricultural Foundation, Instt. China Lab. Pl. Pathol. Agrokipio Chinia Crete Greece. 4: 383–386.
Kim D.S., Cook R.J., Weller D.M. 1997. Bacillus sp. L324–92 for biological control of three root diseases of wheat grown with reduced tillage. Phytopathology 87 (4): 551–558.
Kim H.S., Sang M.K., Jeun Y.C., Hwang B.K., Kim K.D. 2008. Sequential selection and efficacy of antagonistic rhizobacteria for controlling Phytophthora blight of pepper. Crop Prot. 27 (3–5): 436–443.
Krishramuthy K., Grarananickam 1998. Biological control by Pseudomonas fluorescens strain pf7–14: evaluation of a marker gene and formulations. Biol. Control 13 (3): 158–165.
Levy E., Gough F.J., Berlin K.D., Guiana P.M., Smith J.T. 1992. Inhibition of Septoria tritici and other phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria by Pseudomonas fluorescens and its antibiotics. Plant Pathol. 41 (3): 335–341.
Lumsden R.D., Locke J.C. 1989. Biological control of dampingoff caused by Pythium ultimum and Rhizoctonia solani with Gliocladium virens in soiless mix. Phytopathology 79 (3): 361–366.
Nahed Z., Haikal 2007. Improving biological control of Fusarium root-rot in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) by allopathic plant extracts. Interna. J. Agric. Biol. 93 (3): 459–461.
Nandakumar R., Babu S., Viswanathan R., Raguchander T., Samiyappan R. 2001. Induction of systemic resistance in rice against sheath blight disease by Pseudomonas fluorescens. Soil Biol. Biochemis. 33 (4): 603–612.
Palleroni N.J. 1984. Pseudomonadaceae. p. 141–199. In: “Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Biology” (N.R. Kreig, J.G. Holt, eds.). Baltimore: The Williams and Wilkins Co., 1388 pp.
Parke J.L., Rand R.E., Joy A.E., King E.B. 1991. Biological control of Pythium damping off and Aphanomyces root rot of peas by application of Pseudomonas cepacia or P. fluorescens to seed. Plant Dis. 78 (12): 1129–1138.
Paternotte S.J. 1987. Pathogenicity of Fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitae race 1 to courgette. Plant Pathol. 93 (6): 245–252.
Pavlou G.C., Vakalounakis D.J., Ligoxigakis E.K. 2002. Control of root and stem rot of cucumber, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. spp. radicis-cucumerinum, by grafting onto resistant rootstocks. Plant Dis. 86 (4): 379–382.
Poddar R.K., Singh D.V., Dubey S.C. 2004. Integrated application of Trichoderma harzianum mutants and carbendazim to Manage chichpea wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri). Indian J. Agric. Sci. 74 (6): 346–348.
Postma J., Willemsen-de Klein J.E.I.M., van Elsas J.D. 2000. Effect of the indigenous micro flora on the development of root and crown rot caused by Pythium aphanidermatum in cucumber grown on rock wool. Phytopathology 90 (2): 125–133.
Rajput N.A., Pathan M., Jiskani M.M., Rajput A.Q., Arain R.R. 2008. Pathogenicity and host range of Fusarium solani (Mart.). Sacc. Causing dieback of shisham (dalBergia Sissoo RoxB.). Plant Pathol. 40 (1): 2631–2639.
Roberts D.P., Lohrke S.M., Meyer S.L.F., Buyer J.S., Bowers J.H. 2005. Biocontrol agents applied individually and in combination for suppression of soil born diseases of cucumber. Crop Prot. 24 (2): 141–55.
Rose S., Yip R., Punja Z.K. 2004. Biological control of Fusarium and Pythium root rots on greenhouse cucumbers grown in rockwool. Acta Hort. (ISHS) 635 (XXVI): 73–78.
Sallam N.M.A., Abo-Elyousr K.A.M., Hassan M.A.E. 2008. Evaluation of Trichoderma species as biocontrol agent for damping-off and wilt diseases of Phaseolus vulgaris L. and efficacy of suggested formula. Egypt. J. Phytopathol. 36 (2): 81–93.
Sallam N.M.A., Abd–El–Razik A.A., Hassan M.H.A., Koch E. 2009. Powder formulations of Bacillus subtilis, Trichoderma spp and Coniothyriu minitans for biocontrol of onion white rot. Archiv. Phytol. Plant Prot. 42 (2): 142–147.
Sarhan M.M., Ezzat .S.M , Tohamy M.R.A., El-Essawy. A.A., Mohamed. F.A. 2001. Biocontrol of Fusarium tomato wilt disease by Bacillus subtilis. Egypt. J. Microbiol. 36 (1): 103–110.
Schmidt C.S., Lorenz D., Wolf G.A., Jager J. 2001. Biological control of grapevine dieback fungus. Eutypa latall: influence of formulation additives and transpajon mutagenesis on the antagonistic activity of Bacillus subtilis and Erwinia herbicola. J. Phytopathol. 149 (1): 437–445.
Sivan A., Chet I. 1986. Biological control of Fusarium spp. in cotton, wheat and muskmelon by Trichoderma harzianum. J. Phytopathol. 116 (9): 39–47.
Sneath P.H.A., Mair N.S., Elisabeth Sharpe M., Holt J.G. 1986. Endospore-forming gram-positive rods and cocci. p. 1105–1207. In: “Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Biology” (N.R. Kreig, J.G. Holt, eds.). Baltimore: The Williams and Wilkins Co., 1388 pp.
Thomashow L.S., Bonsall R.F., Weller D.M. 2002. Antibiotic production of rhizosphere microbes in situ. p. 638–647. In: “Manual of Environmental Microbiol” (C.J. Hurst, R.L. Crawford, G.R. Knudsen, M.J. McInerney, L.D. Stetzenbach, eds.). 3rd ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C., 1316 pp.
Vidhyasekaran P., Muthamilan M. 1995. Development of formulations of Pseudomonas fluorescens for control of chickpea wilt. Plant Dis. 79 (8): 782–786.
Vidhyasekaran P., Sethuraman K., Rajajappan K., Vasumathi K. 1997. Powder formulations of Pseudomonas fluorescens to control Pigeopea wilt. Biol. Control 8 (3): 166–171.
We W.S., Liu S.D., Tschen S. 1986. Hyperparasitic relationship between antagonists and Rhizoctonia solani. Plant Prot. Bull. 28: 91–100.
Weller D.M., Cook R.J. 1983. Suppression of take-all of wheat by seed treatments with fluorescent Pseudomonas. Phytopathology 73 (4): 463–469.
Weller D.M. 1988. Biological control of soil born plant pathogens in the rhizosphere with bacteria. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol 78: 379–407.
Wiyono S., Schulz D.F., Wolf G.A. 2008. Improvement of the formulation and antagonistic activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens B5 through selective additives in the pelleting process. Biol. Control 46 (4): 348–357.