Improving biological control of stalk borers in sugarcane by applying silicon as a soil amendment
More details
Hide details
Department of Plant Protection, Sugarcane and By-Products Development Company, Salman-Farsi Unit, Ahwaz, 61348-14543, Iran
Amin Nikpay
Department of Plant Protection, Sugarcane and By-Products Development Company, Salman-Farsi Unit, Ahwaz, 61348-14543, Iran
Submission date: 2016-06-01
Acceptance date: 2016-11-07
Journal of Plant Protection Research 2016;56(4):394–401
The sugarcane stalk borers, Sesamia spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) are the most destructive sugarcane insect pests in Iran. The efficiency of Telenomus busseolae Gahan (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) used alone or in combination with silicon fertilization was investigated for controlling the sugarcane stalk borers under field conditions. The treatments were: a combination of silicon plus multiple releases of 2,500 T. busseolae, and multiple releases of 5,000, 2,500 and 1,250 T. busseolae alone. Plots receiving no soil amendment or parasites were included as the controls. Three weeks after the first application of each treatment, 100 shoots were selected randomly from each plot and the percentage of dead heart was determined. Then, three months after the first application of parasites, the percentage of stalks damaged, the percentage of internodes bored, and the level of parasitism were determined. Finally, at harvest the percentage of stalks damaged, the percentage of internodes bored, and sugarcane quality characteristics were determined. Results indicated that the efficiency of parasitism increased when combined with an application of silicon fertilizer. The release of 2,500 T. busseolae followed by an application of silicon fertilizer decreased dead hearts to 4%, while 12% dead hearts was observed in the control plots. For the combination treatment, the percentages of stalk damage were 1.5% and 17.2%, at 3 weeks and 3 months after time release, respectively. However, the percentages of stalk damage were 35.2% and 51% when no treatment was applied. Cane quality was significantly higher with the application of silicon fertilizer plus the release of 2,500 T. busseolae, followed by releasing 5,000 Hymenoptera. The level of parasitism was also greater when parasites were released in combination with an application of silicon. We conclude that biological control by egg parasitoids can be enhanced with concurrent applications of silicon fertilizer as a soil amendment and thereby creating a more robust, Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program of stalk borers in Iranian sugarcane fields.
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
Anderson D.L., Sosa O.J. 2001. Effect of silicon on expression of resistance to sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis). Journal American Society of Sugarcane Technologists 21: 43–50.
Askarianzadeh A., Moharramipour S., Kamali K., Fathipour Y. 2008. Evaluation of damage caused by stalk borers, Sesamia spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), on sugarcane quality in Iran. Entomological Research 38 (4): 263–267.
Goebel F., Achadian E., Kristini A., Sochib M., Adi H. 2011. Investigation of crop losses due to moth borers in Indonesia. Proceedings of the Australian Society of Sugar Cane Technologists 33: 1–9.
Goebel F.R., Achadian E., Mcguire P. 2014. The economic impact of sugarcane moth borers in Indonesia. Sugar Tech 16 (4): 405–410.
Goebel F.R., Roux E., Marquier M., Frandon J., Do Thi Khanh H., Tabone E. 2010. Biocontrol of Chilo sacchariphagus (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) a key pest of sugarcane: lessons from the past and future prospects. Sugar Cane International 28 (3): 128–132.
Goebel F.R., Sallam N. 2011. New pest threats for sugarcane in the new bioeconomy and how to manage them. Current Opinion Environmental Sustainability 3 (1–2): 81–89.
James G. 2004. Sugarcane. 2nd ed. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, London, UK, 224 pp.
Jones L.H.P., Handreck K.A. 1967. Silica in soils, plants and animals. Advances in Agronomy 19 (1): 107–149.
Juma G., Ahuya P.O., Ong’amo G., Le Ru B., Magoma G., Silvain J.F., Calatayud P.A. 2015. Influence of plant silicon in Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae – Poaceae interactions. Bulletin of Entomological Research 105 (2): 253–258.
Keeping M.G., Meyer J.H., Sewpersad C. 2013. Soil silicon amendments increase resistance of sugarcane to stalk borer Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) under field conditions. Plant and Soil 363 (1): 297–318.
Keeping M.G., Miles N., Sewpersad C. 2014. Silicon reduces impact of plant nitrogen in promoting stalk borer (Eldana saccharina) but not sugarcane thrips (Fulmekiola serrata) infestations in sugarcane. Frontiers in Plant Science 5: 289.
Khan I., Zada H., Khalil S.K., Sharif M., Mahmood Z. 2014. Biological control of sugarcane top-borer, Scirpophaga excerptalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) through different release levels of Telenomus beneficiens (Zehntner) (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae). Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 16 (3): 497–503.
Korndörfer A.P., Grisoto E., Vendramim J.D. 2011. Induction of insect plant resistance to the spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata Stål (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) in sugarcane by silicon application. Neotropical Entomology 40 (3): 387–392.
Kuniata L.S., Chandler K.J., Korowi K.T., 2001. Management of sugarcane pests at Ramu, Papua New Guinea. p. 382–388. In: Proceedings of the International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists. Vol. 2. Brisbane, Australia, 17–21 September 2001.
Kvedaras O.L., Keeping M.G. 2007. Silicon impedes stalk penetration by the borer Eldana saccharina in sugarcane. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 125 (1): 103–110.
Kvedaras O.L., An M., Choi Y., Gurr G. 2010. Silicon enhances natural enemy attraction and biological control through induced plant defences. Bulletin of Entomological Research 100 (3): 367–371.
Laycock D.S. 2004. Manual for field trials in plant protection. 4th ed. Syngenta Agro, Basel, Schwitzerland, 444 pp.
Legaspi J.C., Legaspi B.C., Saldana R.R. 1999. Laboratory and field evaluations of biorational insecticides against the Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and a parasitoid (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 92 (4): 804–810.
Long W., Hensley S. 1972. Insect pests of sugar cane. Annual Review of Entomology 17 (1): 149–176.
Ma J.F. 2004. Role of silicon in enhancing the resistance of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 50 (1): 11–18.
Ma J.F., Yamaji N. 2006. Silicon uptake and accumulation in higher plants. Trends in Plant Science 11 (8): 392–397.
Nikpay A., Kord H., Goebel F.R., Sharafizadeh P. 2014. Assessment of natural parasitism of sugarcane moth borers Sesamia spp. by Telenomus busseolae. Sugar Tech 16 (3): 325–328.
Nikpay A., Nejadian E.S., Goldasteh S., Farazmand H. In press. Efficacy of silicon formulations on sugarcane stalk borers, quality characteristics and parasitism rate on five commercial varieties. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India Section B: Biological Sciences. DOI: 10.1007/s40011-015-0596-8.
Nikpay A., Soleyman-Nejadian E., Goldasteh S., Farazmand H. 2015. Response of sugarcane and sugarcane stalk borers Sesamia spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to calcium silicate fertilization. Neotropical Entomology 44 (5): 498–503.
Nikpay A., Soleyman-Nejadian E. 2014. Field applications of silicon-based fertilizers against sugarcane yellow mite Oligonychus sacchari. Sugar Tech 16 (3): 319–324.
Panda N., Khush G.S. 1995. Host plant resistance to insects. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, 448 pp.
Polaszek A., Ubeku J.A., Bosque-Perez N.A. 1993. Taxonomy of the Telenomus busseolae species-complex (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) egg parasitoids of cereal stem borers (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Pyralidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research 83 (2): 221–226.
Reynolds O.L., Keeping M.G., Meyer J.H. 2009. Silicon-augmented resistance of plants to herbivorous insects: a review. Annals of Applied Biology 155 (2): 171–186.
Reynolds O.L., Padula M.P., Zeng R., Gurr G.M. 2016. Silicon: potential to promote direct and indirect effects on plant defense against arthropod pests in agriculture. Frontiers in Plant Science 7: 744.
Rutherford R.S., Conlong D.E., 2010. Combating sugarcane pests in South Africa: from researching biotic interactions to biointensive integrated pest management in the field. Proceedings of International Society of Sugarcane Technologists 27: 1–17.
Sadeghzadeh-Hemayati S., Hamdi H., Fathollah-Taleghani D., Amili H. 2011. Strategic Framework for Sugarcane Research. Phsychology and Arts, Tehran, Iran, 337 pp.
Sallam M.N.S. 2006. A review of sugarcane stem borers and their natural enemies in Asia and Indian Ocean Islands: an Australian perspective. Annales de la Societe entomologique de France 42 (3–4): 263–283.
Savant N.K., Korndörfer G.H., Datnoff L.E., Snyder G.H. 1999. Silicon nutrition and sugarcane production: a review. Journal of Plant Nutrition 22 (12): 1853–1903.
Showler A., Reagan T. 2012. Ecology and tactics of control for three sugarcane stalkboring species in the Western Hemisphere and Africa. p. 1–15. In: “Sugarcane: Production, Cultivation and Uses” (J. Goncalves, K. Correia, ed.). Nova Science, New York, USA, 366 pp.
Sidhu J.K., Stout M.J., Blouin D.C., Datnoff L.E. 2013. Effect of silicon soil amendment on performance of sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on rice. Bulletin of Entomological Research 103 (6): 656–664.
SPSS. 2007. SPSS for Windows. Version 16.0. Chicago, SPSS Inc.
Ullah F., Shakur M., Badshah H., Ahmad S., Amin M., Zamin M. 2012. Efficacy of Trichogramma chilonis Ishii in comparison with two commonly used insecticides against sugarcane stem borer C hilo infuscatellus snellen (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences 22 (2): 463–466.
Veiga A.C.P., Vacari A.M., Volpe H.X.L., de Laurentis V.L., De Bortoli S.A. 2013. Quality control of Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from different Brazilian bio-factories. Biocontrol Science and Technology 23 (6): 665–673.
White W.H., White P.M. 2013. Sugarcane borer resistance in sugarcane as affected by silicon applications in potting medium. Journal of the American Society of Sugar Cane Technologists 33: 38–54.
White W.H., Viator R.P., Dufrene E.O., Dalley C.D., Richard Jr E.P., Tew T.L. 2008. Re-evaluation of sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) bioeconomics in Louisiana. Crop Protection 27 (9): 1256–1261.
Zhen Y.Z., Xing Y.D., Xu M., Han S.Y., Liu G.T., Liu Z.P., Chen Y.F. 1988. Study of toxigenic fungi and their mycotoxins in mildewed sugar-cane. Japanese Society of Mycotoxicology 1 (Suppl.): 37–38.