Induction of defensive enzymes in sunflower plants treated with agrochemicals against Macrophomina phaseolina
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Plant Protection Department, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Duhok, Iraq
A - Research concept and design; B - Collection and/or assembly of data; C - Data analysis and interpretation; D - Writing the article; E - Critical revision of the article; F - Final approval of article
Khadeeja Ahmed Sido   

Plant Protection Department, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Duhok, Iraq
Submission date: 2022-07-21
Acceptance date: 2022-09-21
Online publication date: 2022-11-24
  • This study carried out for estimation of polyphenols (TP) and induction of oxidative enzymes polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) in the sunflower plants through seeds immersion in agrochemicals of salicylic acid (SA) and chitosan (CH) in addition to conidial suspension of T. harzianum and thereafter analysis plants content of carbohydrates and protein.
This study was carried out for the estimation of polyphenols (TP) and induction of oxidative enzymes polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) in sunflower plants through seed immersion in agrochemicals of salicylic acid (SA) and water soluble chitosan (CH) in addition to a conidial suspension of Trichoderma harzianum and then analysis of plant content of carbohydrates and protein. The highest level of PPO 253.3 U ꞏ min–1 was detected in 50 ppm SA for 6 h. Next was T. harzianum when catalyzed PPO with 193.67 U ꞏ min–1. Peroxidase was substantially catalyzed in accordance with the increment of inducers. Sunflower roots induced TP with up to 4.88 mg . g–1 in plants treated with SA at 50 ppm for 6 h and then declined with an increasing SA dose. The total carbohydrate content in leaves of 320 mg ꞏ 100 g–1 was found in treatments of CH at 50 ppm for 6 h. In roots, a carbohydrate content of 500 mg ꞏ 100 g–1 was observed using CH 75 ppm for 6 h. Trichoderma harzianum remarkably increased proteins in leaves and roots by up to 25% compared to 16.9% in the control. These results suggest that inducing the plants’ own defense mechanism by applying salicylic acid and chitosan and bio-control of T. harzianum may offer alternative methods for controlling charcoal rot of sunflower due to the creation of defensive enzymes and could support plant vigor by enhancement of its protein and carbohydrate content.
Natasza Borodynko-Filas
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
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