Possibilities and limitations of weed management in fruit crops of the temperate climate zone
More details
Hide details
Research Institute of Horticulture, Konstytucji 3 Maja 1/3, 96-100 Skierniewice, Poland
Journal of Plant Protection Research 2014;54(4):318–326
This manuscript contains information on the species composition of weed communities in orchards in Poland and other countries of the temperate climate zone. The manuscript deals with the influence of weeds on crops and the interaction between the weeds and other living organisms. The main methods of weed regulation are described. Characteristics of the particular crops – fruit trees and small fruits – and solutions that are either objects of study or have already been introduced into practice, are presented. Advantages and disadvantages of different methods of weed control are discussed, such as soil cultivation and tillage, cover crops, mulches, herbicide use, and flame burning.
Jerzy Lisek
Research Institute of Horticulture, Konstytucji 3 Maja 1/3, 96-100 Skierniewice, Poland
1. Abu-Dieyeh M.H., Watson A.K. 2007. Efficacy of Sclerotinia minor for dandelion control: effect of dandelion accession, age, and grass competition. Weed Res. 47 (1): 63−72.
2. Adamczewski K., Kierzek R., Matysiak K. 2011. Przymiotno kanadyjskie (Conyza canadensis L.) odporne na glifosat. [Horseweed (Conyza canadensis L.) glyphosate resistant]. Prog. Plant Prot./Post. Ochr. Roślin 51 (4): 1675−1682.
3. Albert T., Karp K., Starast M., Paal T. 2010. The effect of mulching and pruning on the vegetative growth and yield of the halfhigh blueberry. Agronomy Res. 8 (1): 759–769.
4. Al-Hinai Y.K., Roper T.R. 2001. Temporal effects of chemical weed control on tart cherry tree growth, yield, and leaf nitrogen concentration. HortScience 36 (1): 80−82.
5. Anderson J.F., Glova W. 1984. Insecticidal poisoning of honey bees in Connecticut. Environ. Entomol. 15: 70−74.
6. Bailey K.L., Pitt W.M., Derby J., Walter S., Taylor W., Falk S. 2010. Efficacy of Phoma macrostoma, a bioherbicide, for control of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) following simulated rainfall conditions. Am. J. Plant Sci. Biotechnol. 4 (2): 35−42.
7. Bowen P., Freyman S. 1995. Ground covers affect raspberry yield, photosynthesis, and nitrogen nutrition of primocanes. HortScience 30 (2): 238–241.
8. Brown M.W., Glenn D.M. 1999. Ground cover plants and selective insecticides as pest management tools in apple orchards. J. Econ. Entomol. 92 (4): 899−905.
9. Brown M.W., Tworkosky T. 2004. Pest management benefits of compost mulch on apple orchards. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 103 (3): 465−472.
10. Brown M.W., Tworkosky T. 2006. Enhancing biocontrol in orchards by increasing food web biodiversity. J. Fruit Ornam. Plant Res. 14 (3): 19−27.
11. Buckelew J.K. 2009. Orchard floor management in young peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.]: effects of irrigation, vegetation – free with, and certain PRE herbicides. Dissertation, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, USA, 116 pp.
12. Bugg R.L., McGourty G., Sarrantonio M., Lanini W.T., Bartolucci R. 1996. Comparison of 32 cover crops in an organic vineyard on the north coast of California. Biol. Agric. Hortic. 13: 63−81.
13. Burhard N., Lynch D., Percival D., Sharifi M. 2009. Organic mulch impact on vegetation dynamics and productivity of highbush blueberry under organic production. HortScience 44 (3): 688−696.
14. Burrows R.L., Pfleger F.L. 2002. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi respond to increasing plant diversity. Can. J. Bot. 80 (2): 120−130.
15. Byers R.E. 1984. Control and management of vertebrate pests in deciduous orchards of the eastern United States. Hortic. Rev. 6: 253–285.
16. Caldwell C.J., Hynes R.K., Boyetchko S.M., Korber D.R. 2012. Colonization and bioherbicidal activity on green foxtail by Pseudomonas fluorescens BRG100 in a pesta formulation. Can. J. Microbiol. 58 (1): 1–9.
17. Camposeo S., Vivaldi G.A. 2011. Short-term effects of of de-oiled pomace mulching on a young super high density olive orchard. Sci. Hortic. 129 (4): 613−621. DOI: 10.1016/j.scienta.2011.04.034.
18. Caroll J., Pritts M.P., Heidenreisch C. 2012. Production Guide for Organic Blueberries. New York State Integrated Pest Management Publication 225, Cornell University, New York, 49 pp.
19. Cianciara T. 1987. Określenie skuteczności preparatu Ronstar w zwalczaniu powoju na plantacji porzeczek. [Evaluation of efficiency Ronstar herbicide to control bindweed (Convolvolus arvensis) on the black currant plantation]. p. 13−16. In: Proc. of the IX Meeting of Herbicide Group, Committee of Horticultural Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, Lublin, Poland, 10 June 1987, 78 pp.
20. Christians N.E. 1995. A natural herbicide from corn meal for weed-free lawns. IPM Practitioner 17 (10): 5−6.
21. Cloutier D.C., Lamarre M. 1997. Weed control and winter protection of strawberries in Quebec using interseeded crops. Acta Hortic. 439: 893−898.
22. Cockroft B., Wallbrink J.C. 1996. Root distribution of orchard trees. Aust. J. Agr. Res. 17 (1): 49–54.
23. Conticello L., Gandullo R. 1991. Survey of summer weeds in the upper valley of Rio Negro y Neuquen. p. 19−26. In: Proc. 12th Argentine Meeting on Weeds and their Control, Mar del Plata, Argentina, 9−11 October 1991.
24. Cox J.A., Morris S., Dalby T. 2014. Woodchip or weedmat? A comparative study on the effects of mulch on soil properties and blueberry yield. Acta Hortic. 1018: 369−374.
25. Czynczyk A., Bielicki P., Mika A., Krawiec A. 2011. A nine-year evaluation of several scab-resistant apple cultivars for organic fruit production. J. Fruit Ornam. Plant Res. 19 (2): 87−97.
26. Dale A. 2000. Black plastic mulch and between-row cultivation increase black currant yields. HortTechnology 10 (2): 307−308.
27. Dayan F.E., Cantrell C.I., Duke O.S. 2009. Natural products in crop protection. Bioorg. Medic. Chem. 17 (12): 4022−4034.
28. den Hollander N.G, Bastiaans L., Kropff M.J. 2007. Clover as a cover crop for weed suppression in an intercropping design. I. Characteristics of several clover species. Eur. J. Agron. 26 (2): 92−103.
29. Dilley C.A., Nonnecke G.R., Christians N.E. 1999. Strawberry growth and weed control in response to using corn gluten hydrolysate. HortScience 34 (3): 473.
30. Dittmar P.J., Williamson J.G. 2013. Weed management in blueberry. University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) Extension Service. [Accessed: March 18, 2014].
31. Doran J.W., Elliott E.T., Paustian K. 1998. Soil microbial activity, nitrogen cycling, and long-term changes in organic carbon pools as related to fallow tillage management. Soil Till. Res. 49 (1−2): 3−18.
32. Forcella F., Poppe S.R., Hansen N.C., Head W.A., Hoover E., Propsom F., McKensie J. 2003. Biological mulches for managing weeds in transplanted strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa). Weed Technol. 17 (4): 782−787.
33. Futch S.H. 2000. Weed control in Florida. p. 55. In: Abstracts of Third International Weed Science Congress, Foz do Iguassu, Brazil, 6−11 June 2000, 301 pp.
34. Giesey J.P., Dobson S., Solomon K.R. 2000. Ecotoxicological risk assessment for Roundup herbicide. Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 167: 35−120.
35. Granatstein D., Mullinix K. 2008. Mulching options for northwest organic andconventional orchards. HortScience 43 (1): 45−50.
36. Granatstein D., Sanchez E. 2009. Research knowledge and needs for orchard floor management in organic tree fruit systems. Int. J. Fruit Sci. 9 (3): 257−281. DOI: 10.1080/15538360903245212.
37. Graupner P.R., Gerwick B.C., Siddall T.L. 2006. Chlorosis inducing phytotoxic metabolites: new herbicides from Phoma macrostoma. p. 37–47. In: “Natural Products for Pest Management” (A.M. Rimando, S.O. Duke, eds.). American Chemical Society Symposium Series No. 927, Washington, DC, USA, 319 pp.
38. Gut D., Barben E., Riesen W. 1996. Critical period for weed competition in apple orchards: preliminary results. Acta Hortic. 422: 273−277.
39. Hallett S.G. 2005. Where are the bioherbicides? Weed Sci. 53 (3): 404−415.
40. Harrington K.C., Hartley M.J., Rahman A., James T.K. 2002. Strategies for controlling weeds in New Zealand apple orchard. p. 208−211. In: Proc. 13th Australian Weeds Conference, Perth, Australia, 8–13 September 2002, 764 pp.
41. Harrington K.C., Hartley M.J., Rahman A., James T.K. 2005. Long term ground cover options for apple orchards. New Zealand Plant Prot. 58: 164−168.
42. Hartley M.J., Rahman A., Harrington K.C., James T.K. 2000. Assessing ground covers in a newly planted apple orchard. New Zealand Plant Prot. 53: 22−27.
43. Heinonen-Tanski H., Rosenberg C., Siltanen H., Kilpi S., Simojoki P. 1985. The effect of the annual use of pesticides on soil microorganisms, pesticide residues in the soil and barley yields. Pest Sci. 16 (4): 341−348.
44. Hoagland L., Carpenter-Boggs L., Granatstein D., Mazzola M., Smith J., Peryea F., Reganold J.P. 2008. Orchard floor management effects on nitrogen fertility and soil biological activity in a newly established organic apple orchard. Biol. Fert. Soils 45 (1): 11−18.
45. Humphries D., Byrtus G., Anderson A.M. 2005. Glyphosate Residues in Alberta’s Atmospheric Deposition, Soils and Surface Waters. Information Centre Alberta Environment, Edmonton, Canada, 51 pp.
46. Horton D.R., Broers D.A., Lewis R.R., Granatstein D., Zack R.S., Unruh T.R., Moldenke A.R., Brown J.J. 2003. Effects of mowing frequency on densities of natural enemies in three Pacific Northwest pear orchards. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 106 (2): 135−145.
47. Johnson M.S., Fennimore S.A. 2005. Weed and crop response to colored plastic mulches in strawberry production. HortScience 40 (5): 1371−1375.
48. Jones A.L., Sutton T.B. 1996. Diseases of Tree Fruits in the East. Michigan State University Bull. NCR 45, 95 pp. Jung J.S., Lee J.S., Choi C.D. 1997. Weed occurrence in apple orchards in Korea. Korean J. Weed Sci. 17 (2): 147−156.
49. Kelly M.J., Pritts M.P., Bellinder R.R. 2007. Evaluation of new cultivation tools to reduce labor requirements in matted-row strawberry culture. HortTechnology 17 (1): 87−94.
50. Kennedy A.C., Smith K.L. 1995. Soil microbiological diversity and the sustainability of agricultural soils. Plant Soil 170 (1): 75−86.
51. Kęsik T., Maskalaniec T. 2004. The effect of soil mulching on weed infestation in a strawberry plantation. Latvian J. Agron. 7: 209−213.
52. Kosterna E. 2014. The effect of soil mulching with organic mulches, on weed infestation in broccoli and tomato cultivated under polypropylene fibre, and without a cover. J. Plant Prot. Res. 54 (2): 188−198.
53. Kwiatkowska J. 2007. Ocena możliwości wykorzystania węgla brunatnego jako efektywnego źródła materii organicznej w gruntach przekształconych antropogenicznie. [Evaluation of brown coal as an effective source of organic matter in anthropologically transformed soils]. Inżynieria i Ochrona Środowiska 10 (1): 71−85.
54. Lamb D.C., Kelly D.E., Hanley S.Z., Mehmood Z., Kelly S.L. 1998. Glyphosate is an inhibitor of plant cytochrome P450: functional expression of Thlaspi arvensae cytochrome P45071B1/reductase fusion protein in Escherichia coli. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 244 (1): 110−114.
55. Larsson L. 1997. Evaluation of mulching organically grown black currant, (Ribes nigrum) in terms of its effects on the crop and the environment. Ph.D. thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Horticulture, Alnarp, Sweden. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Suecicae, s. Agraria, 28, 18 pp.
56. Lawson H.M., Wiseman J.S. 1976a. Weed competition in springplanted raspberries. Weed Res. 16 (3): 155−162.
57. Lawson H.M., Wiseman J.S. 1976b. Weed competition in springplanted strawberries. Weed Res. 16 (5): 345−354.
58. Lehnert R. 2012. Selecting herbicides for tree fruit. Good Fruit Grower 63 (8): 32−33.
59. Lindhard Pedersen H. 2002. Covercrops in black currant (Ribes nigrum). Acta Hortic. 585: 633−638.
60. Lipecki J. 2004. Weeds in orchards in Lublin region (almost) twenty years later – preliminary report. J. Fruit Ornam. Plant Res. 12: 105−111.
61. Lipecki J. 2006. Weeds in orchards – pros and contras. J. Fruit Ornam. Plant Res. 14 (3): 13−18.
62. Lisek J. 2003. Possibilities for effective control of Convolvulus arvensis with bentazon in black currant. IOBC/WPRS Bull. 26 (2): 193−195.
63. Lisek J. 2005. The response of black currant and weeds to glyphosate. Folia Hortic. 17 (2): 71−79.
64. Lisek J. 2010. Wpływ terminu usuwania chwastów na wzrost i plonowanie nowo sadzonych truskawek. [Growth and yielding of newly planted strawberries after different time of weeding]. Prog. Plant Prot./Post. Ochr. Roślin 50 (2): 815–819.
65. Lisek J. 2012a. Skuteczność zwalczania wierzbownicy gruczołowatej (Epilobium adenocaulon) i innych chwastów przez glifosat i MCPA stosowanych z adiuwantem AS 500 SL w sadzie jabłoniowym. [Willow herb and other weeds response to glyphosate and MCPA applied with adjuvant AS 500 SL in apple orchard]. Zesz. Nauk. Inst. Sadow. Kwiac. 20: 12−20.
66. Lisek J. 2012b. Synanthropic flora of strawberry plantations and their surroundings. Veg. Crops Res. Bull. 77: 113–127.
67. Lisek J. 2012c. Synanthropic orchard flora in West Mazovia – central Poland. J. Fruit Ornam. Plant Res. 20 (2): 71−83.
68. Lisek J. 2014. Chwasty. [Weeds]. p. 185–204. In: „Program ochrony roślin sadowniczych”. [“Programme of Fruit Crops Protection”] (Z. Płuciennik, A. Broniarek-Niemiec, S. Masny, J. Lisek, B. Łabanowska, P. Sobiczewski, eds.). Hortpress, Warszawa, Poland, 208 pp.
69. Lisek J., Habdas H., Gawroński S.W. 2002. Relationship between selected morphological, anatomical and cytological characteristics of leaves and the level of tolerance to herbicides in strawberry cultivars. Acta Physiol. Plant. 24 (4): 371−378.
70. Łęski R. (ed.). 1983. Szkodniki i choroby roślin sadowniczych. [Pests and Diseases of Fruit Crops]. Państwowe Wydawnictwo Rolnicze i Leśne, Warszawa, Poland, 468 pp.
71. Mage F. 1982. Black plastic mulching compared to other orchard soil management methods. Sci. Hortic. 16 (2): 131−136.
72. Markuszewski B., Kopytowski J. 2008. Zachwaszczenie i koszty jego regulowania w sadzie jabłoniowym z produkcją integrowaną. [Weed infestation and costs of their regulation in apple orchard with IPM]. Zesz. Nauk. Inst. Sadow. Kwiac. 16: 35−50.
73. Mercik S., Smolarz K. 1995. Influence of fertilization and mulching on the growth, fruiting and chemical composition of soil and leaves of highbush blueberry. Acta Hortic. 383: 323–329.
74. Merwin I.A. 2003. Orchard Floor Management Systems. p. 303−318. In: “Apples: Botany, Production and Uses” (D.C. Ferree, I. Warrington, eds.). CABI Publ., Wallingford, UK, 660 pp.
75. Merwin I.A., Ray J.A., Curtis P.D. 1999. Orchard groundcover management systems affect meadow vole populations and damage to apple trees. HortScience 34 (2): 271−274.
76. Merwin I.A., Rosenberger D.A., Engle C.A., Rist D.L., Fargione M. 1995. Comparing mulches, herbicides, and cultivation as orchard groundcover management systems. HortTechnology 5 (2): 151−158.
77. Merwin I.A., Stiles W.C. 1994. Orchard ground cover management impacts on apple tree growth and yield, and nutrient availability and uptake. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 119 (2): 209–215.
78. Merwin I.A., Stiles W.C., van Es H.M. 1994. Orchard groundcover management impacts on soil physical properties. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 119 (2): 216–222.
79. Merwin I.A., Wilcox W.F., Stiles W.C. 1992. Influence of orchard ground cover management on the development of Phytophthora crown and root rots of apple. Plant Dis. 76 (2): 199−205.
80. Mika A. 2004. The importance of biodiversity in natural environment and in fruit plantations. J. Fruit Ornam. Plant Res. 12 (Special ed.): 11−21.
81. Mika A., Krzewińska D., Olszewski T. 1998. Effect of mulches, herbicides and cultivation as orchard groundcover management systems in young apple tree orchard. J. Fruit Ornam. Plant Res. 6 (1): 1−13.
82. Neilsen G.H., Hogue E.J. 1985. Effect of orchard soil management on the growth and leaf nutrient concentration of young dwarf ‘Red Delicious’ apple trees. Can. J. Soil Sci. 65 (2): 309−315.
83. Neilsen G.H., Hogue E.J. 2000. Comparison of white clover and mixed sodgrass as orchard floor vegetation. Can. J. Plant Sci. 80 (3): 617−622.
84. Neumann G., Kohls S., Landsberg E., Stock-Oliveira Souza K., Yamada T., Röhmheld V. 2006. Relevance of glyphosate transfer to non target plants via the rhizosphere. J. Plant Dis. Prot. 20: 963−969.
85. Niggli U., Weibel F.P., Gut W. 1990. Weed control with organic mulch materials in orchards. Results from 8 year field experiments. Acta Hortic. 285: 97−102.
86. Nonnecke G.R., Christians N.E. 1997. Strawberry production using corn gluten meal as a natural nitrogen source and weed control product. Acta Hortic. 439: 725−730.
87. Novo R.J., Nobile R.A., Zaninetti M.R. 2000. Weeds in peach tree crops in Cordoba. Hort. Argen. 18 (44/45): 43−50.
88. Parker M.L., Hull J., Perry R.L. 1993. Orchard floor management affects peach rooting. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 118 (6): 714−718.
89. Patton A., Weisenberger D. 2012. Efficacy of current organic postemergent weed control options in turfgrass systems. p. 26−30. In: 2011 Annual Report – Purdue Univ. Turfgrass Sci. Progr., West Lafayette, Indiana, USA, 83 pp.
90. Peachey E., Boydston R., Hanson B., Miller T., Al-Khatib K. 2013. Preventing and managing glyphosate-resistant weeds in orchards and vineyards. ANR Publication 8501, University of California, Agriculture and Natural Resources. [Accessed: August 12, 2014].
91. Pritts M.P., Kelly M.J. 2001. Early season weed competition reduces yield of newly planted matted row strawberries. HortScience 36 (4): 729−731.
92. Pritts M.P., Kelly M.J. 2004. Weed competition in a mature matted row strawberry planting. HortScience 39 (5): 1050−1052.
93. Quarles W. 2010. Alternative herbicides in turfgrass and organic agriculture. Integrated Pest Management Practitioner 32 (5/6): 1−8.
94. Rabcewicz J., Białkowski P. 2011. Ocena skuteczności mechanicznego niszczenia chwastów w ekologicznej uprawie jabłoni. [The efficiency of mechanical weed control in ecological apple production]. J. Res. Appl. Agric. Eng. 56 (4): 79−83.
95. Richard S., Moslemi S., Sipahutar H., Benachour N., Seralini G.E. 2005. Differential effects of glyphosate and Roundup on human placental cells and aromatase. Environ. Health Perspect. 113 (6): 716−720. DOI: 10.1289/ehp.7728.
96. Rieux R., Simon S., Defrance H. 1999. Role of hedgerows and ground cover management on arthropod populations in pear orchards. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 73 (2): 119−127.
97. Rifai M.N., Astatkie T., Lacko-Bartosova M., Gadus J. 2002. Effect of two different thermal units and three types of mulch on weeds in apple orchards. J. Environ. Eng. Sci. 1 (5): 1−16.
98. Rowley M.A., Ransom C.V., Reeve J.R., Black B.L. 2011. Mulch and organic herbicide combinations for in-row orchard weed suppression. Int. J. Fruit Sci. 11 (4): 316–331. DOI: 10.1080/15538362.2011.630295.
99. Roy D.N., Konar S.K., Banerjee S., Charles D.A., Thompson D.G., Prasad R.P. 1989. Uptake and persistence of the herbicide glyphosate vision in fruit of wild blueberry and red raspberry. Can. J. Forest Res. 19 (7): 842−847. DOI: 10.1139/x89-128.
100. Rozpara E., Grzyb Z.S., Bielicki P. 2008. Influence of various soil maintenance methods in organic on the growth and yielding of sweet cherry trees in the first years after planting. J. Fruit Ornam. Plant Res. 16: 17−24.
101. Sanchez J.E., Edson Ch.E., Bird G.W., Whalon M.E., Willson T.C., Harwood R.R., Kizilkaya K., Nugent J.E., Klein W., Middleton A., Loudon T.L., Mutch D.R., Scrimger J. 2003. Orchard floor and nitrogen management influences soil and water quality and tart cherry yields. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 128 (2): 277−284.
102. Sas-Paszt. L., Pruski K., Żurawicz E., Sumorok B., Derkowska E., Głuszek S. 2014. The effect of organic mulches and mycorrhizal substrate on growth, field and quality of Gold Milenium apple on M.9 rootstock. Can. J. Plant Sci. 94 (2): 281−289. DOI: 10.4141/cjps2012-239.
103. Schonbrunn E., Eschenburg S., Shuttleworth W.A., Schloss J.W., Amrhein N., Evans J.N., Kabsch W. 2001. Interaction of the herbicide glyphosate with its target enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate synthase in atomic detail. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98 (4): 1376−1380.
104. Shribbs J.M., Skroch W.A. 1986a. Influence of 12 ground cover systems on young ‘Smoothee Golden Delicious’ apple trees: I. Growth. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 111 (4): 525−528.
105. Shribbs J.M., Skroch W.A. 1986b. Influence of 12 ground cover systems on young ‘Smoothee Golden Delicious’ apple trees: II. Nutrition. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 111 (4): 529−533.
106. Sosna I., Licznar-Małańczuk M., Czaplicka M. 2009. Wstępna ocena wpływu żywych ściółek na wzrost i owocowanie drzew jabłoni i gruszy. [The influence of living mulches on the growth and fruiting of pear and apple trees – preliminary results]. Zesz. Probl. Post. Nauk Rol. 536: 197−203.
107. Spiers J.M. 1986. Root distribution of ́Tifblue ́ rabbiteye blueberry as influenced by irrigation, incorporated peatmoss, and mulch. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 111: 877−880.
108. Stefanelli D., Zoppolo R.J., Perry R.L., Weibel F. 2009. Organic orchard floor management systems for apple effect on rootstock performance in the Midwestern United States. HortScience 44 (2): 263−267.
109. Storkey J., Westbury D.B. 2007. Managing arable weeds for biodiversity. Pest Manag. Sci. 63 (6): 517−523.
110. Szewczuk A., Gudarowska E. 2004. The effect of different types of mulching on yield, size, color, and storability of ‘Jonagored’ apples. J. Fruit Ornam. Plant Res. 12 (Special ed.): 207−214.
111. Szewczuk A., Gudarowska E. 2006. Performance of young peach trees planted in ridges and mulched in tree rows. J. Fruit Ornam. Plant Res. 14: 135−141.
112. Tasseva V. 2005. Species composition of weed vegetation in different apple growing technologies. Not. Bot. Hort. Agrobot. Cluj Napoca 33: 58−63.
113. TerAvest D., Smith J.L., Carpenter-Boggs L., Hoagland L., Granatstein D., Reganold J.P. 2010. Influence of orchard floor management and compost application timing on nitrogen partitioning in apple trees. HortScience 45 (4): 637−642.
114. Treder W., Klamkowski K., Mika A., Wójcik P. 2004. Response of young apple trees to different orchard floor management system. J. Fruit Ornam. Plant Res. 12: 113−123.
115. Trinka D.L., Pritts M.P. 1992. Micropropagated raspberry plant establishment responds to weed control practice, row cover use, and fertilizer placement. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 117 (6): 874−880.
116. Tworkoski T.J. 2000. Response of potted peach trees to pruning and grass competition. HortScience 35 (7): 1209−1212.
117. Tworkoski T.J., Glenn D.M. 2001. Yield, shoot and root growth, and physiological responses of mature peach trees to grass competition. HortScience 36 (7): 1214−1218.
118. Tworkoski T.J., Glenn D.M., Welker W.V. 1997. Carbohydrate and nitrogen partitioning within one-year shoots of young peach trees grown with grass competition. HortScience 32 (7): 1174−1177.
119. Tworkoski T., Miller S. 2001. Apple and peach orchard establishment following multi-year use of diuron, simazine, and terbacil. HortScience 36 (7): 1211−1213.
120. Tworkoski T.J., Welker W.V. 1996. Effect of twelve annual applications of diuron, simazine, and terbacil on a soil microbe community in West Virginia. p. 2−6. In: Proc. 15th Annual Meeting of the Northeastern Weed Science Society, Williamsburg, Virginia, USA, 2−5 January 1996.
121. Ustuner T., Ustuner M. 2011. Investigation on different mulch materials and chemical control for controlling weeds in apple orchard in Turkey. Sci. Res. Ess. 6 (19): 3979−3985.
122. Varga C., Buban T., Piskolczi M. 2004. Effect of organic mulching on the quantity of microorganisms in soil of apple plantation. J. Fruit Ornam. Plant Res. 12: 147−155.
123. Walsh B.D., Salmins S., Buszard D.J., MacKenzie A.F. 1996. Impact of soil management systems on organic dwarf apple orchards and soil aggregate stability, bulk density, temperature and water content. Can. J. Soil Sci. 76 (2): 203−209.
124. Weber C.A. 2003. Biodegradable mulch films for weed suppression in the establishment year of matted-row strawberries. HortTechnology 13 (4): 665−668.
125. WeedScience 2014. Weeds resistant to glycines (G/9) by species and country. [Accessed: April 23, 2014].
126. Wehtje G., Altland J.A., Gilliam C.H. 2009. Interaction of glyphosate and pelargonic acid in ready-to-use weed control products. Weed Technol. 23 (4): 544−549. DOI: 10.1614/WT-08-044.1.
127. Weibel F. 2002. Soil management and in-row weed control in organic apple production. Compact Fruit Tree 35: 118–121.
128. Wiman M.R., Kirby E.M., Granatstein D.M., Sulllivan T.P. 2009. Cover crops influence meadow vole presence in organic orchards. HortTechnology 19 (3): 558−562.
129. Wróbel M. 1999. Orchard flora in Szczecin surroundings. J. Fruit Ornam. Plant Res. 7 (3): 133−145.
130. Wyss E. 1996. The effects of artificial weed strip on diversity and abundance of the arthropod fauna in Swiss experimental apple orchard. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 60 (1): 47−59.
131. Yao S., Merwin I.A., Bird G.W. Abawi G.S., Thies J.E. 2005. Orchard floor management practices that maintain vegetative or biomass groundcover stimulate soil microbial activity and alter soil microbial community composition. Plant Soil 271 (1–2): 377–389.
132. Yu J., Morishita D.W. 2014. Response of seven weed species to corn gluten meal and white mustard (Sinapis alba) seed meal rates. Weed Technol. 28 (1): 259−265. DOI: 10.1614/WT-D-13-00116.1.
133. Zebarth B.J., Freyman S., Kowalenko C.G. 1993. Effect of ground covers and tillage between raspberry rows on selected soil physical and chemical parameters and crop response. Can. J. Soil Sci. 73: 481−488.
134. Zimdahl R.L. 1980. Weed – Crop Competition. A review. Publ. International Plant Protection Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, USA, 196 pp.
135. Zobiole L.H.S., Oliveira Jr.R.S., Kremer R.J., Muniz A.S., Oliveira Jr. A. 2010. Nutrient accumulation and photosynthesis in glyphosate-resistant soybeans is reduced under glyphosate use. J. Plant Nutr. 33 (12): 1860−1873. DOI: 10.1080/01904167.2010.491890.