Eucalyptus citriodora leaf extract as a source of allelochemicals for weed control in pea fields compared with some chemical herbicides
More details
Hide details
Botany Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt
A - Research concept and design; B - Collection and/or assembly of data; C - Data analysis and interpretation; D - Writing the article; E - Critical revision of the article; F - Final approval of article
Submission date: 2019-03-09
Acceptance date: 2019-09-02
Online publication date: 2019-10-15
Corresponding author
Kowthar Gad El-Rokiek   

Botany Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt
Journal of Plant Protection Research 2019;59(3):392-399
Two field experiments were established at the Agricultural Experimental Station of the National Research Centre at Nubaria, Beheira Governorate, Egypt to study the herbicidal potential of the leaf extract of Eucalyptus citriodora at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% compared to two hand hoeing, unweeded treatments and the chemical herbicides Bentazon + Clethodium, Bentazon + Fluazifop-P-butyl and Butralin on pea plants and associated weeds. The results indicated that two hand hoeing achieved the maximum weed depression as expressed by the dry matter of total weeds. The dry matter of total weeds decreased by 95.08 to 94.77% as compared with unweeded treatment 50 and 70 days after sowing (DAS) followed by Butraline (93.93–94.65%), Bentazon + Clethodium (93.26–94.07%), Bentazon + Fluazifop- -P-butyl (91.82–92.77%) and leaf extract of Eucalyptus at 25% (91.61–91.95%). Furthermore, the reduction in weed development was accompanied by enhanced pea growth and yield. The results revealed that two hand hoeing was the best treatment to increase plant height, shoot dry weight and SPAD value at 50 and 70 DAS. Also, two hand hoeing produced the maximum values of pod length and number of seeds/pod. The results also indicated that Bentazon + Clethodium treatment gave observable values [recorded 72.96% in pod yield (ton ⋅ fed.–1) over that of unweeded control] of number of pod/plant, weight of pod/plant, seed yield/fed and protein percentage. Also, the results revealed great increases in the growth of pea as well as yield due to treatment with E. citriodora dry leaf extract at 25%. [recorded 64.8% in in pod yield (ton ⋅ fed.–1) over that of unweeded control]. So, the results indicated using Bentazon + Clethodium as well as E. citriodora dry leaf extract at 25% to control weeds associated with pea plants. The authors suggested application of E. citriodora dry leaf extract at 25% in controlling weeds associated with pea plants as a safe method that avoids environmental contamination.
This work was supported and funded by National Research Centre through the project entitled: Some strategies for improving weed control efficacy in some export crops). Project No. (11040202), during in-house projects strategy 2016-2019.
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
Abdelhamid M.T., El- Metwally I.M. 2008. Growth, nodulation, and yield of soybean and associated weeds as affected by weed management. Planta Daninha 26 (4): 855–863. DOI: 10.1590/S0100-83582019370100001.
Abou El-Ghit H.M. 2016. Potent physiological allelopathic effect of eucalyptus leaf extract on Malva parviflora L (mallow) weed. Journal of Pharmaceutical, Chemical and Biological Sciences 3 (4): 584–591.
Ahmed S.A., El-Rokiek, K.G., El-Masry R.R., Messiha N. K. 2014. The Efficiency of Allelochemicals in The Seed Powder of Eruca sativa in Controlling Weeds in Pisum sativum. Middle East Journal of Agricultural Research 3 (4): 757–762.
Batish D.R., Singh H. P., Rana N., Kohli R. K. 2006. Assessment of allelopathic interference of Chenopodium album through itsleachates, debris extracts, rhizosphere and amended oil. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science 52 (6): 705–715. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/036503....
Batish D.R., Kaur S., Singh H.P., Kohli R.K. 2004. Herbicidal activity of volatile oils from Eucalyptus citriodora. p. 29. In: Second European Allelopathy Symposium ”Allelopathy – from understanding to application”. 3rd-5th June, Pulawy, Poland, 500 pp.
Blackshaw R.E., O’Donovan J.T. 1993. Higher crop seed rates can aid weed management. p. 1003–1008. In: Proc. Brighton Crop Protection Conference. Weeds Brighton, UK.
Cao P.R., Luo M.S.L. 2005. Allelopathy in South China agroecosystems. p. 8–10. In: The Fourth World Congress on Allelopathy, Charles Sturt University, Wagga, NSW, 21–26 August, Australia.
Chaubey T., Manimurugan C, Gupta N., Kumar R., Singh P.M., Singh B. 2016. Effect of different weed management practices on seed yield and quality of vegetable pea. Vegetable Science 43 (1) : 142–144.
Cheema Z.A., Khaliq A., Mubeen M. 2003. Response of wheat and winter weeds to foliar application of different plant water extracts of sorghum (S. bicolor). Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research 9: 89–97.
Cheema Z.A., Farooq M., Khaliq A. 2013. Application of Allelopathy in Crop Production Success Story from Pakistan. Allelopathy: Current Trends and Future Applications: 113–144. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-....
Chon S.U., Kim Y.M. 2004. Herbicidal potential and quantification of suspected allelochemicals from four grass crop extracts. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 190 (2): 145–150.
Chon S.U., Kim Y.M., Lee J. C. 2003. Herbicidal potential and quantification of causative allelochemicals from several Composite weeds. Weed Research 43 (6): 444–448. DOI: 10.1111/wre.12362.
Cottenie A., Verloo M., Kiekens L., Velgh G., Camerlynck R. 1982. Chemical Analysis of Plant and Soil. Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry and Applied Ecochemistry, State Univ. Gthent, Belgium, 63 pp.
El-Metwally I.M. 2016. Efficiency of some weed control treatments and some bio-stimulants on growth, yield and its components of faba bean and associated weeds. International Journal of Pharmtech Research 9 (12): 165–174.
El-Metwally I.M., Dawood M.G. 2016. Response of faba bean plants to weed control treatments and foliar spraying of some bio-stimulants under sandy soil condition. International Journal of Pharmtech Research 9 (12): 155–164.
El-Metwally I.M., Dawood M.G. 2017. Weed management, folic acid and seaweed extract effects on faba bean plants and associated weeds under sandy soil conditions. Agricultural Engeneering International, Special issue: 27–34.
El-Metwally I.M., El-Rokiek K.G., Ahmed S.A., El-Desoki E.R., Abd-Elsamad E.E.H. 2010. Effect of adding urea or ammonium sulphate on some herbicides efficiency in controlling weeds in onion plants. Journal of American Science 6 (11): 536–543.
El-Metwally I.M., Saad El-Deen S.A. 2003. Response of pea (Pisum sativum) plants to some weed control treatments. Journal of Agricultural Science, Mansoura Univ. 28 (2): 947–969.
El-Metwally I.M., Elewa T.A., Dawood M.G. 2017a. Response of soybean cultivars to weed control treatments. Agricultural Engeneering International, Special issue: 159–165.
El-Metwally I.M., Abido W.A.E., Tagour R.M.H. 2017b. Influence of plant population and weed control treatments on associated weeds, growth, yield and quality of faba bean. Journal of Plant Production, Mansoura Univ. 8 (10): 983–991.
El-Rokiek K.G., Eid R.A. 2009. Allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus citriodora on amaryllis and associated grassy weed. Planta Daninha 27: 887–889. DOI: 10.1590/S0100-83582009000500002.
El-Rokiek K.G., El-Nagdi W.M. 2011. Dual effects of leaf extracts of Eucalyptus citriodora on controlling purslane and rootknot nematode in sunflower. Journal of Plant Protection Research 51 (1): 121–129. DOI: 10.24425/jppr.2018.124646.
El-Rokiek K.G., El–Desoki E.R., El-Metwally I.M., Dawood M.G. 2016. Allelopathic effect of mango leaf residue against Portulaca oleracea or Corchorus olitorius associated Phaseolus vulgaris growth. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences 7 (4): 964–970.
El-Rokiek K.G., Saad El-Din S.A., El-Wakeel M.A., Dawood M.G., El-Awadi M.E. 2018. Allelopathic effect of the two medicinal plants Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) and Ocimum basilicum L. on the growth of Pisum sativum L. and associated weeds. Middle East Journal of Agriculture Research 07 (3): 1146–1153.
Fakkar A.A.O., El-Dakkak A.A.A. 2015. Effect of crop sequence and weed control treatments on weeds and pea crop productivity. Annals of Agricultural Sciences 60 (6): 157–168. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aoas....
Gomez K.A., Gomez A.A. 1984. Statistical Procedures for Agriculture Research., A Wiley − Inter Science Publication, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, USA, 680 pp.
Haibin W., Haibin H., Cong Ming Z.L., Ying Y., Wen Xiong L. 2009 Allelopathic effect of oxygenicterpenoid on Echinochloa crus-galliL. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture 17 (2): 307–311. DOI: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.190084.
Harmankaya M, Özcan M.M., Karadaş S., Ceyhan E. 2010. Protein and mineral contents of pea (Pisum sativum L.) genotypes grown in central Anatolian region of Turkey. South Western Journal of Horticulture, Biology and Environment 1 (2): 159–165.
Kandil H. 2015. Effect of agrosol treatment and phosphorus levels on pea plants (Pisum Sativum L.). Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research 5 (12): 102–108.
Khan E.A., Khakwaniand A.A., Ghazanfarullah A. 2015. Effects of allelopathic chemicals extracted from various plant leaves on weed control and wheat crop productivity. Pakistan Journal of Botany 47 (2): 735–740. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30848/PJB...).
Khanh T.D., Xuan T.D., Chin D.V., Chung I.M., Elzaawely A.A., Twata S. 2006. Current tatus of biological control of paddy weeds in Vietnam. Weed Biology and management 6 (1): 1–9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/wbm.12....
May F.E., Ash J.E. 1990. An assessment of the allelopathic potential of Eucalyptus. Australian Journal of Botany 38 (3): 245–254. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1071/bt9900....
Nawaz A., Farooq M., Cheema S.A., Chee Z.A. 2014. Role of allelopathy in weed management. p. 39–62. In: Recent Advances in Weed Management (Chauhan B.S., Gill G.S., eds.). Springer New York Heidelberg Dordrecht London, 407 pp.
Niakan M., Saberi K. 2009. Effects of Eucalyptus Allelopathy on Growth Characters and Antioxidant Enzymes Activity in Phalaris Weed. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences 8 (6): 440–446. DOI: 10.3923/ajps.2009.440.446.
Rassaeifar M., Hosseini N., Haji Hasani As N., Zandiand P., Moradi Aghdam A. 2013. Allelopathic effect of Eucalyptus globulus essential oil on seed germination and seeding establishment of Amaranthus blitoides and Cynodon dactylon. Trakia Journal of Sciences 1: 73–81. DOI: 10.15547/tjs.2017.03.017.
Singh H.P., Batish D.R., Setia N., Kohli R.K. 2005. Herbicidal activity of volatile oils from Eucalyptus citriodora against Parthenium hysterophorus. Annals of Applied Biology 146 (1): 89–94. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/aab.12....
Wall D.A., Friesen G.H., Bhati T.K. 1991. Wild mustard interference in traditional and semi-leafless peas. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 71 (2): 473–480. https://doi.org/10.1139/CJPS-2....
Xuan T.D., Twata S., Khanh T.D., Chung I.M. 2005. Biological control of weeds and plant pathogens in paddy rice by exploiting plant allelopathy: an overview. Crop Protection 24: 197–206. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crop....
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top