Potential of chitosan alone and in combination with agricultural wastes against the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita infesting eggplant
More details
Hide details
Section of Plant Pathology and Nematology, Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India
Mohd Asif
Section of Plant Pathology and Nematology, Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India
Submission date: 2017-06-09
Acceptance date: 2017-09-19
Journal of Plant Protection Research 2017;57(3):288–295
The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the potential of chitosan alone and in combination with various agricultural wastes for the management of rootknot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita on eggplant cv. ‘BR-112’ under greenhouse conditions. The results showed that chitosan as a single or joint treatment with agricultural wastes significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced root-knot indices, and the nematode population in soil. As a result, of this, the growth and growth yielding attributes of eggplant were remarkably augmented. Chitosan as an elicitor induced plant mediated systemic resistance against M. incognita in eggplant. The results of the study demonstrated that maximum reduction in eggmass/root, eggs/eggmasses, nematode population and root-knot indices, was acquired by the treatments: chitosan + onion and chitosan + mentha. It was followed by chitosan + Brassica, chitosan + urad and chitosan + coconut whereas, chitosan combined with corn cob waste was found to be the least effective when compared to the control. The application of chitosan alone was effective but not very satisfactory. Compared to the control applications of all the treatments significantly increased plant growth in terms of length, fresh and dry weights, pollen fertility, yield and biochemical parameters such as chlorophyll, carotenoid content and antioxidant enzymes. This may have been due to the eliciting activity of chitosan, causing systemic resistance in the plant and the release of various toxic chemical compounds during decomposition which have lethal effects against the second stage juveniles of M. incognita and nematode multiplication.
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
Aboud H.M., Fattah F.A., Al-Heeti A.A., Saleh H.M. 2002. Efficiency of chitosan in inducing systemic acquired resistance against the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica (Treub) Chitwood) on tomato. Arab Journal of Plant Protection 20 (2): 93–98.
Abubakar U., Majeed Q. 2000. Use of animal manure for the control of root-knot nematodes of tomato. Journal of Agriculture and Environment 1 (12): 29–33.
Ahmad F., Siddiqui M.A 2009. Promising organic additives for them management of root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. Indian Journal of Nematology 39 (2): 246–249.
Asif M., Tariq M., Khan A., Siddiqui M.A. 2016. Sustainable management of root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita through organic amendment on Solanum lycopersicum L. Asian Journal of Biology 1 (1): 1–8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.9734/ajob/2....
Asif M., Tariq M., Khan A., Siddiqui M.A. 2017. Biocidal and antinemic properties of aqueous extracts of Ageratum and Coccinia against root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita in vitro. The Journal of Agricultural Sciences 12 (2): 108–122. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4038/jas.v1....
Brown P.D., Morra M.J. 1997. Control of soil-borne plant pests using glucosinolates-containing plants. Advances in Agronomy 61: 167–231. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0065-....
Burkett-Cadena M., Kokalis-Burelle N., Lawrence K.S., van Santen E., Kloepper J.W. 2008. Suppressiveness of root-knot nematodes mediated by rhizobacteria. Biological Control 47 (1): 55–59. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bioc....
Curto G., Dallavalle E., Lazzeri L. 2005. Life cycle of duration of Meloidogyne incognita and host status of Brassicaceae and Capparaceae selected for glucosinolate content. Nematology 7 (2): 203–212. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/156854....
Curto G., Lazzeri L., Dallavalle E., Santi R., Malaguti L. 2006. Effectiveness of crop rotation with Brassicaceae species for the management of the southern root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Abstracts 2nd International Biofumigation Symposium, June 25–29, Moscow, Russia, 51 pp.
Daykin M.E., Hussey R.S 1985. Staining and histo-pathological techniques in nematology. p. 39–48. In: “An Advanced Treatise on Meloidogyne” (K.R. Barker, C.C. Carter, J.N. Sasser, eds.). Volume II. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina State University Graphics, USA.
Dhindsa R.S., Plumb-Dhindsa P., Thorpe T.A. 1981. Leaf senescence correlated with increased levels of membrane permeability and lipid peroxidation, and decrease levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Journal of Experimental Botany 32 (1): 93–101. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/32....
El-Hadrami A., Lorne R.A., El-Hadrami I., Daayf F. 2010. Chitosan in Plant Protection. Marine Drugs 8 (4): 968–987. DOI: 10.3390/md8040968.
FAO. 2011. Food and Agriculture Organization. Available on: http://fao.org/docrep/013/i205.... [Accessed: 15 May 2017].
Giebel J. 1974. Biochemical mechanism of plant resistance to nematodes – a review. Journal of Nematology 6 (4): 175–184.
Godoy G., Rodriguez-Kabana R., Shelby R.A., Morgan-Jones G. 1983. Chitin amendments for control of Meloidogyne arenaria in infested soil. II. Effects on microbial population. Nematropica 13: 63–74.
Hassan M.A., Chindo P.S., Marley P.S. Alegbejo M.D. 2010. Management of root-knot nematodes, (Meloidogyne spp.) on tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum) using organic wastes in Zaria, Nigeria. Plant Protecion Science 46: 34–39.
Huzaifa U., Labaran I., Bello A.B.,Olatunde A. 2014. Phytochemical screening of Aqueous extracts of Garlic (Allium sativum) bulbs. Report and Opinion 6 (8): 1–4.
Kaur C., Kapoor H.C. 2002. Anti-oxidant activity and total phenolic content of some Asian vegetables. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 37 (2): 153–161. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365....
Khalil M.S., Badawy M.E. 2012. Nematicidal activity of a biopolymer chitosan at different molecular weights against root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. Plant Protection Science 48: 170–178.
Kordali S., KotanR., Mavi A., Cakir A., Ala A., Yildirim A. 2005. Determination of the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the essential oil of Artemisia dracunculus and of the antifungal and antibacterial activities of Turkish Artemisia absinthium, A. dracunculus, Artemisia santonicum and Artemisia spicigera essential oils. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53 (24): 9452–9458. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0516....
Luc M., Sikora A., Bridge J. 2005. Plant parasitic nematodes in subtropical and tropical agriculture. CABI, Wallingford, UK, 2nd edition, 871 pp.
Mackinney G. 1941. Absorption of light by chlorophyll solutions. Journal of Biolgical Chemistry 140: 315–322.
Montes M.J., Lopez-Brana I., Delibes A. 2004. Root enzyme activities associated with resistance to Heterodera avena ecoferred by gene Cre7 in wheat, Aegilops triuncialis introgression line. Journal of Plant Physiology 161 (4): 493–495. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1078/0176-1....
Oka Y. 2010. Mechanisms of nematode suppression by organic soil amendments – a review. Applied Soil Ecology 44 (2): 101–115. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apso....
Papavizas G.C., Davey C.B., Woodard R.S. 1962. Comparative effectiveness of some organic amendments and fungicides in reducing activity and survival of Rhizoctonia solani in soil. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 8 (6): 915–922. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1139/m62-11....
Ploeg A. 2008. Biofumigation to manage plant-parasitic nematodes. p. 239–248. In: “Integrated Management and Biocontrol of Vegetable and Grain Crops Nematodes” (A. Ciancio, K.G. Mukerji, eds.). Integrated Management of Plant Pests and Diseases. Volume 2, Springer Netherlands. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-....
Rabea E.I., Badawy M., Stevens C.V., Smagghe G., Steurbaut W. 2003. Chitosan as antimicrobial agent: applications and mode of action. Biomacromolecules 4 (6): 1457–1465. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/bm0341....
Radwan M.A., Abu-Elamayem M.M., Farrag S.A.A., Ahmed N.S. 2011. Integrated management of Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato using bio-agents mixed with either oxamyl or organic amendments. Nematologia Mediterranea 39 (2): 151–156.
Radwan M.A., Farrag S.A.A., Abu-Elamayem M.M., Ahmed N.S. 2012. Extraction, characterization, and nematicidal activity of chitin and chitosan derived from shrimp shell wastes. Biology and Fertility of Soils 48 (4): 463–468. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00374....
Raja A., Dasgupta D.R. 1986. Enhance synthesis of messenger RNA in relation to resistance-expression in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) infected with the root knot nematode. Review de Nematology 9 (1): 35–38.
Rodriguez-Kabana R., Godoy G., Morgan-Jones G., Shelby R.A. 1983. The determination of soil chitinase activity: conditions for assay and ecological studies. Plant and Soil 75 (1): 95–106. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/bf0217....
Sikora R.A., Fernandez E. 2005. Nematode parasites of vegetables. p. 319–392. In: “Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Subtropical and Tropical Agriculture” (M. Luc, R.A. Sikora, J. Bridge, eds). CABI Publishing, Wallingford. DOI: 10.1079/9780851997278.0000.
Singh R.V., Sharma H.K. 1998. Nematode Diseases in Plants. New Delhi: CBS Publishers and Distributors. Nematode problems and their management in vegetable crops 252–268.
Sujatha K., Usha Mehta K. 1998. Changes in the activity of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidases in sugarcane root after infection with Pratylenchus zeae and Meloidogyne javanica. Afro Asian Journal of Nematology 2: 80–83.
Tariq I., Siddiqui M.A. 2005. Evaluation of nematicidal properties of neem for the management of Meloidogyne incognita on tomato. Indian Journal Nematology 35: 56–58.
Taylor A.L., Sasser J.N. 1978. Biology, Identification and Control of Root-knot Nematodes (Meloidogyne species). A Cooperative Publication of the Department of Plant Pathology North Carolina State University and the United States Agency for International Development, Printed by North Carolina State University Graphics.
Zacheo G., Beleve-Zacheo T., Pricolo G. 1987. Metabolic changes in enzyme levels in potato roots infested by potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida (Pa3) and Globodera rostochiensis (R01). Nematologia Mediterranea 15 (2): 293–302.