Do combinations of insecticides and acaricides influence spray droplet formation and the interaction with citrus leaves?
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Department of Crop Protection, São Paulo State University, São Paulo, Brazil
A - Research concept and design; B - Collection and/or assembly of data; C - Data analysis and interpretation; D - Writing the article; E - Critical revision of the article; F - Final approval of article
Submission date: 2019-01-22
Acceptance date: 2019-05-15
Online publication date: 2020-01-22
Corresponding author
Jaqueline Franciosi Della Vechia   

Department of Crop Protection, São Paulo State University, São Paulo, Brazil
Journal of Plant Protection Research 2019;59(4):487-493
In agriculture, the mixing of pesticides in tanks is a common practice. However, it is necessary to previse possible physical-chemical implications of this practice, which may affect the efficiency of the treatments performed. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the addition of acaricide to insecticidal spray mixtures on the formation of spray droplets and the interaction with citrus leaves. The experimental design was totally randomized, in a (2 × 3 + 1) factorial scheme for seven treatments. Factor A corresponded to the spray mixture used (isolate or in the mixture). Factor B corresponded to the insecticides tested (lambda-cyhalothrin + thiamethoxam, phosmet, and imidacloprid) and the control consisted of a spray mixture with spirodiclofen only. Nine replications were performed for characterization of the spray droplet size spectrum and four replications for the analysis of the surface tension and the contact angle. The mixture of pesticides showed positive results in terms of application safety. The addition of acaricide to insecticide spray mixtures reduced the surface tension and contact angle of droplets on the adaxial surface of orange leaves. There was an increment in volume median diameter (VMD), a significant reduction in the volume of droplets with drift-sensitive size and improvement in the uniformity of droplet size. Therefore, the addition of acaricide to an insecticide spray mixture positively influenced spray droplet formation and the interaction with citrus leaves providing better coverage and droplet size fractions with an appropriate size for safe and efficient application.
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
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