Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal inoculations on the growth and polyphenol levels of garden leek (Allium porrum)
More details
Hide details
USDA-ARS, Eastern Regional Research Center, Molecular Characterization of Foodborne Pathogens Research Unit, Wyndmoor, PA 19038, USA
USDA-ARS, Eastern Regional Research Center, Core Technologies, Wyndmoor, PA 19038, USA
USDA-ARS, Eastern Regional Research Center, Food Safety and Intervention Technologies Research Unit, Wyndmoor, PA 19038, USA
A - Research concept and design; B - Collection and/or assembly of data; C - Data analysis and interpretation; D - Writing the article; E - Critical revision of the article; F - Final approval of article
Submission date: 2017-10-06
Acceptance date: 2018-01-31
Corresponding author
Ocen Modesto Olanya   

USDA-ARS, Eastern Regional Research Center, Food Safety and Intervention Technologies Research Unit, Wyndmoor, PA 19038, USA
Journal of Plant Protection Research 2018;58(1):83-90
Arbuscular mycorrizal (AM) fungi may enhance plant growth and polyphenol production, however; there have been limited studies on the relationships between root colonization of different fungal species and polyphenol production on cultivated Allium porrum (garden leek). The effects of inoculation of AM fungi spores from Rhizophagus intraradices, Gigapora margarita, Glomus geosporum, Paraglomus occultum, Claroideoglomus claroideum, and Glomus species on colonization of roots of garden leek and symbiotic changes in polyphenol production and plant growth were evaluated in greenhouse experiments. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in colonization of leek roots by AM fungi species. The greatest level of root colonization was recorded on plants inoculated with R. intraradices (73%) and the lowest level on C. claroideum (3.2%). Significant differences (P<0.05) in plant height were recorded between AM inoculated plants and the controls. Polyphenol levels differed significantly (P<0.05) between garden leek plants inoculated with AM fungi and the non-inoculated controls. The percentage increases in polyphenol (a derivative of kaempferol) on garden leeks inoculated with G. geosporum relative to the untreated controls ranged from 310 to 1123%. Due to symbiosis with different AM species, other polyphenols decreased in some instances (negative values) and increased in others for values of up to 590%. This suggests that AM fungi species exhibited remarkable differences in polyphenol levels in garden leeks. The high polyphenol production by garden leek plants inoculated with G. geosporum, and Glomus species could be exploited for enhanced resistance of garden leeks to insects and diseases. This research highlights an understudied area, notably the relationships between AM fungal inoculations, root colonizations and polyphenol production in garden leeks. The findings can be utilized to improve the pest resistance and quality of garden leek plants.
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
Baum C.W., El-Tohamy W., Gruda N. 2015. Increasing the productivity and product quality of vegetable crops using arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: A review. Scientia Horticulurae 187: 131–141. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.s....
Bolan N.S. 1991. A critical review on the role of mycorrhizal fungi in the uptake of phosphorus by plants. Plant and Soils 134: 189–207. DOI: https://link.springer.com/cont....
Calderon-Montano J.M., Burgos-Moron F., Perez-Guerrero C., Lopez-Lazaro M. 2011. A review on dietary flavonoid kaempferol. Mini-Rev. Medical Chemistry 11: 298–344. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/PMID:214289....
Ceccarelli N., Curadi M., Martelloni L., Sbrana C., Picciarelli P., Giovannetti M. 2010. Mycorrhizal colonization impacts on phenolic content and antioxidant properties of artichoke leaves and flower heads two years after field transplant. Plant and Soils 335: 311–323. DOI: https://doi.org/:10.1007/s1110....
Don-Rodriguez R.B.V., Jacob N., Jean-Marc D.S., Beaulys F., Jesus A.A., Marie-Stephanie A.K., Seydou C., Sebastien N., Adolphe Z. 2013. Abundance and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AFM) communities associated with cassava (Manihot esculente Crantz) rhizosphere in Abengourou, East Cote d’ Ivoire. Journal of Ecology and the Natural Environment 5: 360–370. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/:10.5897/JE....
Douds D.D. 2002. Increased spore production by Glomus intraradices in the split-plate monoxenic culture system by repeated harvest, gel replacement, and supply of glucose to the mycorrhiza. Mycorrhiza 12: 163–167. DOI: https://doi.org/:10.1007/s0057....
Douds D.D. 2009. Utilization of inoculum produced on-farm for production of AM fungus colonized pepper and tomato seedlings under conventional management. Biological Agriculture and Horticulture 26: 353–364. DOI: https://doi.org/:10.1080/01448....
Douds D.D., Reider C. 2003. Inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi increases the yield of green papers in a high P. soil. Biological Agriculture and Horticulture 21: 91–102. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/014487....
Engel R., Szabo K., Abranko L., Rendes K., Fuzy A., Takacs T. 2016. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth and polyphenol profile of marjoram, lemon balm, and marigold. Agriculture and Food Chemistry 64: 3733–3742. DOI: https://doi.org/:10.1021/acs.j....
Finlay R.D. 2004. Mycorrhizal fungi and their multifunctional roles. Mycologist 18: 91–96. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S02699....
Franke-Snyder M., Douds D.D., Galvez L., Phillips J.C., Wagoner P., Drinkwater L., Morton J.B. 2001. Diversity of communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi present in conventional versus low-input agricultural sites in eastern Pennsylvania, USA. Applied Soil Ecology 16: 35–48. DOI: https://PII: S0929-1393(00)00100-1.
Hoagland D.R., Arnon D.I. 1939. The water culture method for growing plants without soil. California Agricultural Experiment Station Cirular: 347.
Jenkins W.R. 1964. A rapid centrifugal-floatation technique for separating nematodes from soil. Plant Disease Reporter 48: 692.
Liu J., Maldonado-Mendoza I., Lopez-Meyer M., Cheung F., Town C.D., Harrison M.J. 2007. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is accompanied by local and systemic alterations in gene expression and an increase in disease resistance in shoot. Plant Journal 50: 529–544. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365....
Lu F-C., Lee C.Y., Wang C.L. 2015. The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation on yam (Dioscorea spp.) tuber weights and secondary metabolic content. Peer Journal 3: e1266. DOI: https://doi.org/:10.7717/peerj....
McGonigle T.P., Miller M.H., Evans D.G., Fairchild G.L., Swan J.A. 1990. A new method which gives an objective measure of colonization of roots by vesicular – arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. New Phytologist 115: 495–501. DOI: https://doi.org/:10.1111/nph.1....
Malik N.S.A., Bradford M.J.M. 2005. Regulation of flowering in ‘Arbequina’ olives under non-chilling conditions: The effect of high daytime temperatures on blooming. Journal of Food Agriculture and Environment 4: 283–286. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1234/4.2....
Malik N.S.A., Nunez A., McKeever L.C. 2015. Mycorrhizal symbiosis in leeks increases plant growth under low phosphorus and affects the levels of specific flavonoid glycosides. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment 13: 54–60. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1234/4.2015....
Nelsen C.E., Safir G.R. 1982. Increased drought tolerance of mycorrhizal onion plants caused by improved phosphorus nutrition. Planta 154: 407–413. DOI: https://doi.10.1007/BF01267807.
Olanya O.M., Anwar M., He Z., Larkin R.P., Honeycutt C.W. 2016. Survival potential of Phytophthora infestans sprorangia in relation to environmental factors and late blight occurrence. Journal of Plant Protection Research 56 (1): 73–81. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jppr-2....
Olanya O.M., Honeycutt C.W., Larkin R.P. 2015. Incidence of Phytophthora infestans on potato in Maine, 2006–2010. Journal of Plant Protection Research 55 (1): 58–68. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jppr-2....
Perez-Gregorio R.M., Garcı´a-Falcon M.S., Simal-Gandara J., Rodriguez A.S., Almedia D.P.F. 2010. Identification and quantification of flavonoids in traditional cultivars of red and white onions at harvest. Journal of Food Composition Analysis 23: 592–598. DOI: https://doi.org/:10.1016/j.jfc....
Phillips J.M., Hayman D.S. 1970. Improved procedures for clearing roots and staining parasites and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for rapid assessment of infection. Transactions of British Mycological Society 55: 158–160.
Pozo M.J., Azcon-Aguilar C. 2007. Unravelling mycorrhizainduced resistance. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 10: 393–398. DOI: https://doi.org/:10.1016/j.pbi....
Ruiz-Lozano J.M., Azcon R., Gomez M. 1995. Effects of arbuscular-mycorrhizal glomus species on drought tolerance: physiological and nutritional responses. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 61: 456–460. DOI: http://aem.asm.org/content/61/....
Smith S.E., Read D.J. 2008. Mycorrhizal symbiosis. In: “Mycorrhizal Symbiosis”. 3rd ed., Academic Press, San Diego, California, USA, 800 pp.
Sorensen J.N., Larsen J., Jakobsen I. 2003. Management strategies for capturing the benefits of mycorrhizas in the production of field-grown vegetables. Acta Horticulturae 627: 65–71. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaH....
Sundaresan P., Ubalthoose R., Gunasekaran P. 1993. Induction and accumulation of phtoalexin in cowpea roots infected with mycorrhizal fungus Glomus fasciculatum and their resistance to Fusarium wilt disease. Journal of Biosciences 18: 291–301. DOI: https://link.springer.com/arti....
Watanarojanaporn N., Boonkerd N., Wongkaew S., Prommanop P., Teaumroong N. 2011. Selection of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for citrus growth promotion and Phytophthora suppression. Scientia Horticulturae 128: 423–433. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.s....
Yao L.H., Jiang Y.M., Shi J., Thomas-Barberan F.A., Datta N., Singanusong R., Chen S.S. 2004. Flavonoids in food and their health benefits. Plant Food and Human Nutrition 59: 113–122. DOI: https://doi: 10.1007/s11130-004-0049-7.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top