• This study reveals Cameroonian isolate within FOE clade 1 exhibited the greatest variability grouping with isolates from Suriname, Brazil and Democratic Republic of Congo. The pathogenicity of FOE isolates from Cameroon and has demonstrated that FOE in Africa is more diverse than previously reported including a lineage not previously observed outside of Cameroon
In Cameroon, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is of economic importance. However, it is affected by vascular wilt presumed to be caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. elaeidis (FOE). Accurate species identification requires molecular-based comparisons. The aim of this work was to molecularly identify Fusarium species associated with diseased oil palms and to determine the pathogenicity of selected isolates. Fungal samples of diseased palms were collected from the canopies and the soil of five oil palm estates of the Cameroon Development Corporation and characterized by sequencing and comparing the translation elongation factor 1a gene. The results revealed the presence of FOE from approximately 80% of the isolates. Cameroonian isolate within FOE clade 1 exhibited the greatest variability grouping with isolates from Suriname, Brazil and Democratic Republic of Congo. Other isolates found in FOE clade 2 formed a unique group which was comprised solely of isolates originating from Cameroon. Twenty-two isolates were chosen for pathogenicity tests. After a short time, 14 isolates were found to be pathogenic to oil palm seedlings. This study revealed the pathogenicity of FOE isolates from Cameroon and demonstrated that FOE in Africa is more diverse than previously reported, including a lineage not previously observed outside of Cameroon. Comparisons between all isolates will ultimately aid to devise appropriate control mechanisms and better pathogen detection methods.
The first author acknowledges funding from the Fulbright scholar grant and the Fungal Molecular Biology Laboratory in the Department of Plant Pathology, University of Florida, Gainesville, USA where the laboratory work was carried out. The Cameroon Development Corporation (CDC) gratefully acknowledges personnel and material support through their Pest and Disease Unit.
Lidia Irzykowska
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
Adusei-Fosu K., Dickinson M. 2019. Development of pathogenicity assay and characterization of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. elaeidis (FOE) based on secreted in xylem genes and EF-1α. Journal of Plant Pathology 101: 1013–1024. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s42161....
Corley R.H.V., Tinker P.B. 2003. The Oil Palm. 4th edition. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, p. 133–198. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/978047....
Dubey S., Singh S.R., Singh B. 2010. Morphological and pathogenic variability of Indian isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris causing chickpea wilt. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection 43 (2): 174–190. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/032354....
Edgar R.C. 2004. MUSCLE: multiple sequence alignment with high accuracy and high throughput. Nucleic Acids Research 32: 1792–1797. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gk....
Flood J, Whitehead D.S., Cooper R.M. 1992. Vegetative compatability and DNA polymorphisms in Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. elaeidis and their relationship to isolate virulence and origin. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 41: 201–215. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0885-5....
Flood J. 2006. A review of Fusarium wilt of the oil palm caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. elaeidis. Phytopathology 96 (6): 660–662. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-....
Geiser D.M., Jimenez-Gasco M., Kang S., Makalowska I., Veeraraghavan N., Ward T.J., Zhang N., Kuldau G.A., O’Donnell K. 2004. FUSARIUM-ID v. 1.0: A DNA sequence database for identifying Fusarium. European Journal of Plant Pathology 110: 473–479. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/B:EJPP....
Gordon T.R., Martyn R.D.1997. The evolutionary biology of Fusarium oxysporum. Annual Review of Phytopathology 35: 111–128. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annure....
Hartley C.W.S. 1988. The Oil Palm. 3rd ed. London, Longman, 958 pp. Available on: https://www.biblio.com/the-oil....
Hsuan H.M., Salleh B., Zakaria L. 2011. Molecular identification of Fusarium species in Gibberella fujikuroi species complex from rice, sugarcane and maize from Peninsular Malaysia. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 12: 6722–6732. DOI: 10.3390/ijms12106722.
Kinene T., Wainaina J., Maina S., Boykin L.M. 2016. Rooting trees, methods. p. 489–493. for. In: “Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Biology” (Kliman R.M., ed.). Oxford: Academic Press. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-800049-6.00215-8.
Kulkarni S. P. 2006. Studies on Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht Fr f. sp. gladioli (Massey) Snyd. & Hans. causing wilt of Gladiolus. M. Sc(Agri). Thesis, Univ. Agric. Sci., Dharwad (India). [Available on: https://www.semanticscholar.or...].
Kumar D.S.S., Hyde K.D. 2004. Biodiversity and tissue-recurrence of endophytic fungi from Tripterygium wilfordii. Fungi Diversity 17: 69–90. [Available on: https://www.fungaldiversity.or...].
Kumar S., Stecher G., Tamura K. 2016. MEGA7: Molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 7.0 for bigger datasets. Molecular Biology and Evolution 33: 1870–1874. DOI: 10.1093/molbev/msw054.
Leslie J.F., Summerell B.A. 2006. The Fusarium Laboratory Manual. 1st ed. Blackwell Publishing; Hoboken, NJ, USA. [Available on: file:///C:/Users/23767/Downloads/THEFUSARIUMLABORATORYMANUAL.pdf]. [Accessed: 3 July 2022].
Llorens A., Hinojo M.J., Mateo R., Gonzalez-Jaeén M., ValleAlgarra F.M., Logrieco A., Jiménez M. 2006. Characterization of Fusarium spp isolates by PCR-RFLP analysis of the intergenic spacer region of the rRNA gene (rDNA). International Journal of Food Microbiology 106 (3): 297–306. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2005.09.005.
Möller E.M., Bahnweg G., Sandermann H., Geiger H.H. 1992. A simple and efficient protocol for isolation of high molecular weight DNA from filamentous fungi, fruit bodies, and infected plant tissues. Nucliec Acids Research 22: 6115–6116. DOI: 10.1093/nar/20.22.6115.
Mouyna I., Renard J.L.Y., Brygoo Y. 1996. DNA polymorphism among Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. elaeidis populations from oil palm, using a repeated and dispersed sequence “Palm”, Current Genetics 30 (2): 174–180. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00294....
Nelson P.E. 1991. Recent advances in Fusarium systematics: History of Fusarium systematics. Phytopathology 81: 1045–1048. [Available on: http://pascal-francis.inist.fr...].
Ngando E.G.F., Etta C.E., Ntsomboh G.N., Oben T.T. 2013. Breeding oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) for Fusarium wilt tolerance: an overview of research programmes and seed production potentialities in Cameroon. International Journal of Agricultural Sciences 3 (5): 513–520. [Available on: https://www.internationalschol...]. [Accessed: 3 June 2022].
Ntsomboh-Ntsefong G., Ngando-Ebongue G.F., Koona P., Bell J.M., Youmbi E., Ngalle H.B., Bilong E.G., Madi G., Anaba B. et al. 2012. Control approaches against vascular wilt disease of Elaeis guineensis Jacq. caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. elaeidis. Journal of Biology and Life Science 3 (1): 160–173. DOI: 10.5296/jbls.v3i1.992.
Ntsomboh-Ntsefong G., Epoh-Nguea T., Madi G., Nsimi-Mva A., Ngando E., Georges F., Kounga T.S., Mpondo M.E., Dibong D. 2015. Isolation and in vitro characterization of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. elaeidis, causal agent of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) vascular wilt. Research in Plant Sciences 3 (1): 18–26. DOI: 10.12691/plant-3-1-4.
Ochoa J., Fonseca G., Ellis M. 2000. First report of Fusarium wilt of Babaco (Carica heilbornii var. pentagona) in Ecuador. Plant Disease 84 (2): 199. DOI: 10.1094/PDIS.2000.84.2.199A.
O’Donnell K., Gueidan C., Sink S., Johnston P.R., Crous P.W., Glenn A., Riley R., Zitomer N.C., Colyer P., Waalwijk C., van der Lee T., Moretti A., Kang S., Kim H.S., Geiser D.M., Juba J.H., Baayen R.P., Cromey M.G., Bithell S., Sutton D.A., Skovgaard K., Ploetz R., Kistler H.C., Elliott M., Davis M., Sarver B.A.J. 2009. A two-locus DNA sequence database for typing plant and human pathogen within the Fusarium oxysporum species complex. Fungal Genetics and Biology 46: 936–948. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fgb.....
Rossman A.Y., Palm-Hernandez M.E. 2008. Systematics of plant pathogenic fungi. Why it matters. Plant Disease 92: 1376–1386. DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-92-10-1376.
Rusli M.H., Idris A.S., Cooper R.M. 2015. Evaluation of Malaysian oil palm progenies for susceptibility, resistance or tolerance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. elaeidis and defence-related gene expression in roots. Plant Pathology 64: 638–647. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/ppa.12....
Summerell B.A., Salleh B., Leslie J.F. 2003. A utilitarian approach to Fusarium identification. Plant Disease 87(2): 117–128. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS.2....
Suryanarayanan T.S., Murali T.S., Thirunavukkarasu N., Govindarajulu M.B., Venkatesan G., Sukumar R. 2011. Endophytic fungal communities in wood perennials of three tropical forest types of the Western Ghats, Southern India. Biodiversity Conservation 20: 913–928. DOI: 10.1007/s10531-011-0004-5.
Tengoua F.F., Bakoumé C. 2008. Pathogenicity of Cameroon strains of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. elaeidis – the causal agent of oil palm vascular wilt. The Planter 84 (985): 233–237.
White T.J., Bruns T., Lee S., Taylor J. 1990. Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenies. p. 315–322. In: “PCR Protocols. A Guide to Methods and Amplifications” (Innis M.A., Gelfand D.H., Sninsky J.J., White T.J., eds.). Academic Press, San Diego, USA. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978....
Yli-Matilla T., Paavaeen-Huhtala S., Bulat S.A., Alekhina I.A., Nirenberg H.I. 2002. Molecular, morphological and phylogenetic analysis of the Fusarium avenaceum / F. arthrosporioides / F. tricinctum species complex – a polyphasic approach. Mycological Research 106: 655–669.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S09537....
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top