Prevalence of aflatoxin B1 contamination in pre- and post-harvest maize kernels, food products, poultry and livestock feeds in Tamil Nadu, India
More details
Hide details
Department of Plant Pathology, Centre for Plant Protection Studies, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641003, Tamil Nadu, India
Corresponding author
Rethinasamy Velazhahan
Department of Plant Pathology, Centre for Plant Protection Studies, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641003, Tamil Nadu, India
Journal of Plant Protection Research 2009;49(2):221-224
Aflatoxins, a group of mycotoxins mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus and A.parasiticus, have adverse health effects on humans and livestock that ingest aflatoxin- contaminated food products and feeds.To secure the safety of food and feed, regular monitoring of aflatoxin levels is necessary. In order to understand the magnitude of aflatoxin contamination, a survey was conducted in different agro-ecological zones of Tamil Nadu, India and 242 samples consisting of pre- and post-harvest maize kernels, food products, poultry and livestock feeds were collected from farmers’ fields, poultry farms, retail shops and supermarkets and analyzed for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contamination by enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) using antiserum raised against aflatoxin B1-Bovine serum albumin (AFB1-BSA). The results indicated that 61.3% of the maize kernel samples were contaminated with AFB 1 and the levels of AFB 1 in 26% of the pre- and post-harvest maize kernels exceeded 20 μg/kg. The highest level of AFB 1 (245 μg/kg) was recorded in post-harvest maize kernel samples. In food products AFB 1 was detected only in two samples out of 30 samples tested. Furthermore, the levels ranged from 0.6 to 3.7 μg/kg. In poultry feeds, AFB 1 was detected in 30 out of 53 samples and the levels ranged from 0.7 to 31.6 μg/kg. Among the 40 livestock feed samples evaluated 29 samples were contaminated with AFB1 at level ranging from 1.8 to 244.9 μg/kg.
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
Bababunmi E.A., Uwaifo A.O., Bassir O. 1978. Hepatocarcinogens in Nigerian food stuffs. World Rev. Nutr. Diet. 28: 188–209.
Balasubramanian T. 1985. Incidence of Aflatoxin B1 in animal feeds. Indian Vet. J. 62: 982–988.
Bankole S.A., Adebanjo A. 2003. Mycotoxins in food in West Africa: current situation and possibilities of controlling it. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 2: 254–263.
Bhat R.V., Shetty P.H., Amruth R.P., Sudersham R.V. 1997. A foodborne disease outbreak due to consumption of moldy sorghum and maize containing fumonisin mycotoxins. J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol. 35: 249–255.
Dhavan A.S., Chaudary M.R. 1995. Incidence of aflatoxin in animal feed stuffs: A decade scenario in India. J. AOAC. Int. 78: 693–698.
Dutta T.K., Das P. 2001. Isolation of aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus and detection of aflatoxin B1 from feeds in India. Mycopathologia 151: 29–33.
Eaton D.L., Gallagher E.P. 1994. Mechanism of aflatoxin carcino genesis. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 34: 135–172.
Hell K., Cardwell K.F., Poehling H.M. 2003. Relationship between management practices, fungal infection and aflatoxin for stored maize in Benin. J. Phytopathol.151: 690–698.
Karthikeyan M., Sandosskumar R., Mathiyazhagan S.,Mohankumar M., Valluvaparidasan, V., Sangit Kumar, Velazhahan R. 2009. Genetic variability and aflatoxigenic potential of Aspergillus flavus isolates from maize.Arch. Phytopathol. Plant Protect. 42: 83–91.
Kpodo K.A. 1996. Mycotoxins in maize and fermented maize products in Southern Ghana. In: Proceedings of the work shop on “Mycotoxins in Food in Africa” (K.F. Cardwell, ed.). International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Cotonou, Benin. November 6–10, 1995, 33 pp.
Li F., Yoshizawa T., Kawamura O., Luo X., Li Y. 2001. Aflatoxins and fumonisins in corn from the high incidence area for human hepatocellular carcinoma in Guangxi, China. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49: 4122–4126.
Ong T. 1975. Aspergillus flavus mutagenesis. Mutat. Res.32: 35–53.
Oyebanji A.O., Efiuvwevwere B.J.O. 1999. Growth of spoilage mould and aflatoxin B1 production in naturally contaminated or artificially inoculated maize as influenced by moisture content under ambient tropical condition. Int. Biodeterioration Biodegrad. 44: 209–217.
Polan C.E., Hayes J.R., Campbell T.C. 1974. Consumption and fate of aflatoxin B1 by lactating cows. J. Agric. Food Chem. 22: 635–638.
Reddy P.S., Reddy C.V., Reddy V.R., Rao P.V. 1984. Occurrence of aflatoxin in some feed ingredients in three geographical regions of Andhra Pradesh. Indian J. Anim. Sci.54: 235–238.
Reddy S.V., Mayi D.K., Reddy M.U., Thirumala Devi K., Reddy, D.V. 2001. Aflatoxin B1 in different grades of chillies (Capsicum annuum L.) in India as determined by indirect competitive ELISA. Food Addit. Contam. 18: 553–558.
Selvasubramanian S., Chandrasekharan D., Viswanathan K., Balachandran C., Punnia Murthy N., Veerapandian C. 1987. Surveillance of AFB1in various livestock and poultry feeds. Indian Vet. J. 64: 1033–1034.
Setamou M., Cardwell K.F., Schulthess F., Hell K. 1997. Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin contamination of preharvest maize in Benin. Plant Dis.81: 1323–1327.
Singh T., Tyagi R.P.S., Ram B. 1984. Occurrence of aflatoxin B1 in animal and poultry feeds. Indian J. Dairy Sci. 37: 167–169.
Waliyar F., Reddy S.V., Subramaniam K., Reddy T.Y., Devi K.R., Craufurd P.Q., Wheeler T. R. 2003. Importance of mycotoxins in food and feed in India. Aspects Appl. Biol. 68:147–154.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top