The synergists action of piperonyl butoxide on toxicity of certain insecticides applied against Helopeltis theivora waterhouse (Heteroptera: Miridae) in the dooars tea plantations of north Bengal, India
More details
Hide details
Entomology Research Unit, Department of Zoology, University of North Bengal Darjeeling-734 430, West Bengal, India
Department of Zoology, Mizoram Central University, Tanhril, Aizawl – 796 009, Mizoram, India
Corresponding author
Somnath Roy
Entomology Research Unit, Department of Zoology, University of North Bengal Darjeeling-734 430, West Bengal, India
Journal of Plant Protection Research 2009;49(2):225-228
Higher efficacy of mixture of insecticides with synergists piperonyl butoxide (PB) was reported in controlling in the Dooars population of Helopeltis theivora Waterhouse. Therefore, the use of synergists as one of the countermeasures against the insecticide resistance problem of H. theivora is recommended. The combination of deltamethrin +PB (piperonyl butoxide), quinalphos +PB and imidacloprid +PB showed 44.60, 16.01 and 11.14 folds increase of toxicity (synergistic ratio) than the respective insecticide alone. Piperonyl butoxide acted as an oxidase inhibitor. The addition of PB to some extent suppressed the resistance of H. theivora to these insecticides, suggesting that the P450 enzyme complex may be involved in the mechanism of toxicity.
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
Abd-Elghafar S.F., Knowles C.O., Wall M.L. 1993. Pyrethroid resistance in two field strains of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 86: 1651–1655.
Attia F.I., Frecker T. 1984. Cross-resistance spectrum and synergism studies in organophosphorus-resistant strain of Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.) (Coleoptera: Cucujidae) in Australia.J. Econ. Entomol.77 (3): 1367–1370.
El-Sebae A.H., Dawood A.S. Saliman S.A. 1978. New synergists for synthetic pyrethroids and organophosphorous insecticides against cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis. Med. Fac. Landbouww. Rijksuniv. Gent. 43/2: 873–880.
FAO 1980. Recommended methods for measurement of pest resistance to pesticides Plant Prod. Protect. Paper. 21: 1–132.
Farnham A.W. 1973. Genetics of resistance of pyrethroid-selected houseflies, Musca domestica L. Pestic. Sci. 4: 513–520.
Finney D.T. 1971 Probit Analysis. The Cambridge University Press London, 333 pp.
Gurusubramanian G., Bora S. 2007. Relative toxicity of some commonly used insecticides against adults of Helopeltis theivora Waterhouse (Miridae: Hemiptra) collected from Jorhat area tea Plantations, South Assam, India. Resist. Pest Manage. Newsletter 17 (1): 8–12.
Gurusubramanian G., Senthilkumar N., Bora S., Roy S., Mukhopadhyay A. 2008. Change in Susceptibility in male Helopeltis theivora Waterhouse (Jorhat Population, Assam, India) to Different Classes of Insecticides. Resist. Pest Manage. Newsletter 18 (1): 36–40.
Ho S.H., Lee B.H., See D. 1983. Toxicity of deltamethrin and cypermethrin to the larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. Toxicol. Letters 19: 127–131.
Hsu J., Feng H., Wu W. 2004. Resistance and synergistic effects of insecticides in Bactrocera dorsalis(Diptera: Tephritidae) in Taiwan J. Econ. Entomol. 97 (5): 1682–1688.
Liu M.Y., Chen J.S., Sun C.N. 1984. Synergism of pyrethroids by several compounds in larvae of the diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 77: 851–856.
Liu M.Y., Sun C.N., Hnang S.W. 1982. Absence of synergism of DDT by piperonyl butoxide and DMC of the diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 75: 964–965.
Lloyd C.J. 1973. The toxicity of pyrethrins and five synthetic pyrethroids to Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and susceptible and pyrethrins-resistant Sitophilus granarius. J. Stored Prod. Res.9 (1): 77–92.
Mota-Sanchez D., Whalon M., Grafius E., Hollingworth. R. 2000. Resistance of Colorado potato beetle to imidacloprid. Resist. Pest Manage. Newsletter 11 (1): 32–34.
Nauen R., Strobel J., Tietjen K., Erdelen C., Elbert A. 1996. Aphicidal activity of imidacloprid against a tobacco feeding strain of Myzus persicae(Homoptera: Aphididae) from Japan closely related to Myzus nicotiana and highly resistant to carbamates and organophosphates. Bull. Entomol. Res. 86: 165–171.
Plapp F.W. 1979. Synergism of pyrethroid insecticides by formamidines against Heliothis pest of cotton. J. Econ. Entomol. 72: 667–670.
Ranasinghe L.E., Georghiou G.P. 1979. Comparative modification of insecticide resistance spectrum of Culexipiens fatigansWied. by selection with temephos/synergist combinationa. Pestic. Sci. 10: 502–508.
Riskallah M.R., Abo-Elghar M.R., Radwan H.S.A., Nassar M.E. AbdElghafar S.F. 1984. Effects of different synergists on the toxicities of fenvalerate and decamethrin to susceptible and pyrethroid-resistant. Int. Pest Control 6: 38–40.
Roy S., Mukhopadhyay A., Gurusubramanian G. 2008a. Susceptibility status of Helopeltis theivora Warerhouse (Heteroptera: Miridae) to the commonly applied insecticides in the tea plantation of the Sub-Himalayan Dooars area of North Bengal India. Resist. Pest Manage. Newsletter 18 (1): 10– 18.
Roy S., Mukhopadhyay A., Gurusubramanian G., 2008b. Variation in endosulfan susceptibility and body lipid content of Helopeltis theivoraWarerhouse (Heteroptera: Miridae) in relation to the use pattern of insecticide, in sub-Himalayan Dooars tea plantation. J. Plant. Crop 36 (3): 388–392.
Sarker M., Mukhopadhyay A. 2003. Expression of esterases in different tissues of the tea pest, Helopeltis theivora exposed and unexposed to synthetic pesticide sprays from Darjeeling foothills and plains. Two and a Bud 50: 28–30.
Sarker M., Mukhopadhyay A. 2006 Studies on Salivary and Midgut Enzymes of a Major Sucking Pest of Tea, Helopeltis theivora (Heteroptera: Miridae) from Darjeeling plains, India. J. Ent. Res. Soc. 8 (1): 27–36.
Scott J.F. 1996. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase-mediated Resistance to insecticides. Pestic. Sci. 21: 241–245.
Wilkinson C. F. (ed.). 1976. Insecticide Biochemistry and Physiology. Plenum, New York, 768 pp.
Yamamoto I. 1973. Pyrethroid insecticides and the synergists action and metabolism. J. Agric. Sci. Tokyo Nogyo Diagaku 17: 273–313.
Yu S.J., Terriere L.C. 1979. Cytochrome P450 in insects. I. Differences in the form present in insecticide resistant and susceptible houseflies. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 12: 239–248.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top