Research on the certification of the apple orchard pest and disease control program as an innovative strategy for the production of apples practically free of pesticide residues, i.e., below 0.01 mg · kg–1
Paweł Krawiec 3, A-B,F
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Institute of Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, University of Rzeszów, Rzeszów, Poland
Bio Berry Polska sp. z o.o., Lublin, Poland
Horti Team Paweł Krawiec, Lublin, Poland
Institute of Biology, College of Natural Sciences, University of Rzeszów, Rzeszów, Poland
Interdisciplinary Center for Preclinical and Clinical Research, University of Rzeszów, Werynia, Poland
A - Research concept and design; B - Collection and/or assembly of data; C - Data analysis and interpretation; D - Writing the article; E - Critical revision of the article; F - Final approval of article
Submission date: 2023-04-20
Acceptance date: 2023-08-02
Online publication date: 2023-10-31
Corresponding author
Bartosz Piechowicz   

Institute of Biology, College of Natural Sciences, University of Rzeszów, Rzeszów, Poland
  • It will practically never be possible to supply the market with only tested fruit.
  • It is necessary to prepare a certified program for the protection of apple orchard.
  • The time after which, pesticide residues fall below 0.01 mg/kg, have been determined.
  • Deadlines for the last application of pesticides have been established.
  • A rational basis for reduction of fungicide application rate has been identified
The aim of this research was to prepare the basis for the certification of the apple orchard protection program by determining disappearance models for active ingredients (AIs) of plant protection products (PPPs) in fruits. Field trials were carried out in a conventional apple orchard protected with PPPs in accordance with the currently adopted program. Residues of their AIs were determined using Agilent GC-MS/MS 7000D and LC-MS/MS 6470 QQQ, and their decreases were expressed by the exponential formula: Rt = R0 × e–k × t. Of all the AIs found in mature fruits, captan disappeared at the fastest rate [t(1/2) in the range of 9 to 13 days], followed by fluopyram [t(1/2) = 13 days], tebuconazole [t(1/2) = 14 days] and carbendazim [t(1/2) in the range of 24 to 32 days]. With the exception of dithiocarbamates and some fungicides (e.g., Captan 80 WDG) based on captan and methyl thiophanate, other insecticides and fungicides currently recommended can be used up to 3 months before harvest practically with virtually no restrictions. From July 15 to August 15, the chemicals effective at application rates not exceeding 0.3 kg of AI per ha should be used. To protect apples against storage diseases, PPPs that are effective at a dose ≤ 0.1 kg AI per ha (e.g., certain triazoles or strobilurins) and applied not later than 1 month before harvest, should be used.
Piotr Kaczyński
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
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