Weeds are one of the most important limiting factors in the production of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) in Iran, especially in autumn sown chickpea. Weed density and biomass in autumn chickpea are seven and two and a half times higher than the spring chickpea, respectively. The weed damage to chickpea in Tabriz, Kermanshah and West Azerbaijan was estimated at 48.3, 57 and 36%, respectively. Sixty-four weed species were identified in chickpea fields. Convolvulus arvensis L. and Galium tricornutum Dandy have the highest presence in chickpea fields. Pyridate and linuron are the only herbicides registered for use in chickpea fields in Iran. However, research results show that fomesafen and isoxaflutole are the most appropriate herbicides for chickpea fields. Oxyfluorfen, imazethapyr, metribuzin, trifluralin, simazine, terbutryn and pendimethalin are the major herbicides studied in weed control research. The combination of herbicides and mechanical control is one of the effective methods to reduce weeds. Hand weeding and cultivation between rows are the most effective mechanical methods of weed control. High nitrogen enhances weed dry weight. Safflower and barley residues reduce weed populations and biomass. Barley-chickpea and wheat-chickpea intercropping systems increase chickpea yield together with proper weed control. In future research, more attention should be paid to surfactants to reduce the use of herbicides, rotation crops and integrated weed management in chickpea.
We acknowledge the Plant Protection Research Department, Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Kermanshah, Iran for their financial support of this project.
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
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