Repellent usage against rodents is almost not provided anymore. Permission to use many rodent repellent substances under European Union (EU) plant protection regulations has not been renewed in recent years. Some approval for chemical substances have not been renewed due to their toxicological properties, and for some biorational approvals have also not been renewed due to lack of financial support together with other concerns. Some other rodent repellent substances possessing accurate properties in a secondary way have also been withdrawn. Thus, the use of almost ten active substances is now illegal. The lack of support and the resultant orphan use may be explained by the relatively small market and possible business together with the expectations of modern substance application requirements. As a result, the opportunity to consider new biorational substances as candidates is therefore open. Plant based food substances are preferred candidates for plant protection considering their favourable toxicological characteristics. Capsicum oleoresin, a mixture obtained from two spice species (Capsicum annuum and C. frutescens), is one of them with appropriate repellent properties. An application under EU Plant Protection Product regulation has recently been submitted and may become a new repellent for biological control agent against seed predators.
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
Ahmad S., Saleem Z., Jabeen F., Hussain B., Ahmada, Sultana T., Sultana S., Al-Ghanim K.A., Al-Mulhimb N.M.A., Mahboob S. 2018. Potential of natural repellents methylanthranilate and anthraquinone applied on maize seeds and seedlings against house sparrow (Passer domesticus) in captivity. Brazilian Journal of Biology 78 (4): 667–672. DOI:
Andelt W.F. 1994. Effectiveness of capsaicin and bitrex repellents for deterring browsing by captive mule deer. The Journal of Wildlife Management 58 (2): 330–334. DOI:
Baker S.E., Ellwood S.A., Watkins R., MacDonald D.W. 2005. Non-lethal control of wildlife: using chemical repellents as feeding deterrents for the European badger Meles meles. Journal of Applied Ecology 42 (5): 921–931. DOI:
Barnett J.P. 1998. Oleoresin capsicum has potential as a rodent repellent in direct sedding longleaf pine. p. 326–328. In: Proceedings of the 9th Biennial Southern Silvicultural Research Conference. February 25–27, 1997, Campus of Clemenson University, Clemenson, USA, 628 pp.
Brown P.R., Singleton G.R., Tann C.R., Mock I. 2003. Increasing sowing depth to reduce mouse damage to winter crops. Crop Protection 22: 653–660. DOI:
Diaz M. 1992. Rodent seed predation in cereal crop areas of central Spain: effects of physiognomy, food availability, and predation risk. Ecography 15 (1): 77–85. DOI:
EC. 2002a. Regulation (EC) No. 178/2002 of the European parliament and of the council of 28 January 2002 laying down the general principles and requirements of food law, establishing the European food safety authority and laying down procedures in matters of food safety. Official Journal of the European Union L 31: 1–24.
EC. 2002b. Scientific Committee on Food. Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Food on Capsaicin. SCF/CS/FLAV/FLAVOUR/8 ADD1 Final: 1–12.
EC. 2009a. Regulation (EC) No. 1107/2009 of 21 October 2009 concerning the placing of plant protection products on the market and repealing Council Directives 79/117/EEC and 91/414/EEC. Official Journal of the European Union L 309: 1–50.
EC. 2009b. Directive 2009/128/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 October 2009 establishing a framework for Community action to achieve the sustainable use of pesticides. Official Journal of the European Union L 309: 71–86.
EFSA. 2016. Outcome of the consultation with Member States and EFSA on the basic substance application for paprika extract, capsanthin, capsorubin E 160 c (admissibility accepted when named Capsicum spp. spice) for use in plant protection as repellent to various invertebrates, mammals and birds, EN-1096: 1–54. DOI:
EFSA. 2017. Outcome of the consultation with Member States and EFSA on the basic substance application for Saponaria officinalis L. roots for use in plant protection as acaricide and plant elicitor, EN-1263: 1–44. DOI:
EU. 2011. Implementing Regulation (EU) No 540/2011 of 25 May 2011 implementing Regulation (EC) No 1107/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards the list of approved active substances. Official Journal of European Union L 153: 133–319.
EU. 2012. Regulation (EU) No 231/2012 of 9 March. 2012. Laying down specifications for food additives listed in Annexes II and III to Regulation (EC) No 1333/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council. E 160 c paprika extract, capsanthin, capsorubin. Official Journal of European Union L 083: 1–295.
EU. 2014. SANCO/10363/2012 Rev. 9 and SANCO/10069/2013 Rev. 3. Available on:
EU. 2016. Regulation (EU) No 2016/673 of 29 April 2016 amending Regulation (EC) No 889/2008 laying down detailed rules for the implementation of Council Regulation (EC) No 834/2007 on organic production and labelling of organic products with regard to organic production, labelling and control. Official Journal of European Union L 116: 8–22.
EU. 2017. Implementing Regulation (EU) 2017/2067 of 13 November 2017 concerning the non-approval of paprika extract (capsanthin, capsorubin E 160 c) as a basic substance in accordance with Regulation (EC) No 1107/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning the placing of plant protection products on the market. Official Journal of European Union L 295: 47–48.
EU. 2019a. EU Pesticides Database Available on:
EU. 2019b. Implementing Regulation (EU) 2019/324 of 25 February 2019 amending Implementing Regulation (EU) No 540/2011 as regards the approval periods of the active substances bifenthrin, carboxin, FEN 560 (also called fenugreek or fenugreek seed powder), pepper dust extraction residue and sodium aluminium silicate. Official Journal of European Union L 57: 1–3.
Evans W.C., Evans D. 2009. Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy. 16th ed., Elsevier, London, 616 pp.
Everet R.L., Meeuwig R.O., Stevens R. 1978. Deer mouse preference for seed of commonly planted species, indigenous weed seed, and sacrifice foods. Journal of Range Management 31 (1): 70–73. DOI:
FDA. 2015. Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS) Doc No. 1836 U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Fitzgerald C.S., Curtis P.D., Richmond M.E., Dunn J.A. 1995. Effectiveness of capsaicin as a repellent to birdseed consumption by gray squirrels. National Wildlife Research Center Repellents Conference 1995. Paper 16. Available on:
Govindarajan V.S., Sathyanarayana M.N. 1991. Capsicum-production, technology, chemistry and quality. Part V. Impact on physiology, pharmacology, nutrition and metabolism; structure, pungency, pain and desensitization sequences. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 29 (6): 435–473. DOI:
Hansen S.C., Stolter C., Imholt C., Jacob J. 2016. Plant secondary metabolites as rodent repellents: a systematic review. Journal of Chemical Ecology 42 (9): 970–983. DOI:
Ho T.M., Fauziah M.K. 1993. Laboratory evaluation of two commercial repellents against Leptotrombidium fletcheri. Southeast Asean Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 24: 165–169.
Johnson R.J., Koehler A.E., Burnside O.C. 1982. Rodent repellents for planted grain. Proceedings 10th Vertebrate Pest Conference (R.E. Marsh, ed.). University of California, Davis, California 26: 205–209.
Koehler A.E. 1983. Methiocarb and thiram as thirteen-lined ground squirrel repellents in newly planted corn. Dissertations and Theses in Natural Resources 234: 1–87.
Marchand P.A. 2015. Basic substances: an opportunity for approval of low-concern substances under EU pesticide regulation. Pest Management Science 71 (9): 1197–1200. DOI: 10.1002/ps.3997.
Marchand P.A. 2016. Basic substances under EC 1107/2009 phytochemical regulation: experience with non-biocide and food products as biorationals. Journal of Plant Protection Research 56 (3): 312–318, DOI: 10.1515/jppr-2016-0041.
Marchand P.A. 2017a. Basic Substances under EU Pesticide Regulation: an opportunity for Organic Production? Organic Farming 3 (1): 16–19. DOI: 10.12924/of2017.03010016.
Marchand P.A. 2017b. Basic substances as renewable and affordable crop protection products. Chronicle of Bioresource Management 1 (2): 065–066.
Marchand P.A. 2017c. Basic and low risk substances under European Union pesticide regulations: A new choice for biorationals portfolio of small and medium-sized enterprises. Journal of Plant Protection Research 57 (4): 433–440 DOI: 10.1515/jppr-2017-0056.
Markai S., Marchand P.A., Mabon F., Baguet E., Billault I., Robins R.J. 2002. Natural deuterium distribution in branched-chain medium-length fatty acids is nonstatistical: a site-specific study by quantitative 2H NMR spectroscopy of the fatty acids of capsaicinoids. ChemBioChem 3 (2–3): 212–218. DOI:<212::aid-cbic212>;2-r.
Mason J.R., Bonwell W.R. 1993. Evaluation of turpentine as a bird-repellent seed treatment. Crop Protection 12 (6): 453–457. DOI:
Matyjaszczyk E. 2018. Plant protection means used in organic farming throughout the European Union. Pest Management Science 74: 505–510. DOI:10.1002/ps.4789.
Mayeux J.V. 1996. Hot shot insect repellent: an adjuvant for insect control. p. 35. In: Proceedings of the Beltwide Cotton Conferences. Vol 1. Nashville, TN, USA.
Ministry of Health. 2003. Guidelines on permitted flavouring substances (Regulation 22, Food Regulations 1985). Malaysia. Morgan D.E. (ed). 2018. CRC Handbook of Natural Pesticides. Volume VI: Insect Attractants and Repellents. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 146 pp. DOI:
Nolte D.L., Barnett J.P. 2000. A repellent to reduce mouse damage to longleaf pine seed. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 45 (3–4): 169–174. DOI:
Parrish M. 1996. Liquid chromatographic method of determining capsaicinoids in capsicums and their extractives: collaborative study. Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists International 79 (3): 738–745.
Pavela R. 2017. Extract from the roots of Saponaria officinalis as a potential acaricide against Tetranychus urticae. Journal of Pest Science 90 (2): 683–692. DOI: 10.1007/s10340-016-0828-6.
Project 294. (n.d.). Profile on production of oleoresin of pepper, 18 pp.
Scoville W.L. 1912. Note on capsicums. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 1: 453–454. DOI: 10.1002/jps.3080010520.
Spurr E.B., McGregor P.G. 2003. Potential invertebrate antifeedants for toxic baits used for vertebrate pest control: A literature review. Science for Conservation 232. Department of Conservation Wellington, New Zealand: 13.
USEPA. 1992. Capsaicin EPA-738-F-92-016 US Environmental Protection Agency.
Warthen K., Morgan E.D. 1990. Insect feeding deterrents. p. 23–134. In: “Handbook of Natural Pesticide” (E.D. Morgan, N.B. Mandava, eds.). CRC, Boca Raton. Werner S.J., Avery M.L. 2017. Chemical repellents. USDA National Wildlife Research Center – Staff Publications 1979 8: 135–158.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top