A comparison between Pseudomonas aureofaciens (chlororaphis) and P. fluorescens in biological control of cotton seedling damping-off disease
More details
Hide details
Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 14515/775, Tehran, Iran
Plant Disease Research Department, Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, P.O. Box 1452, Tehran 19395, Iran
Asghar Heydari
Plant Disease Research Department, Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, P.O. Box 1452, Tehran 19395, Iran
Submission date: 2013-10-15
Acceptance date: 2014-04-15
Journal of Plant Protection Research 2014;54(2):115–121
Due to the importance of the biological control of plant diseases, testing and introducing new biocontrol-active microorganisms is a major concern among plant pathologists. The causal agent of cotton seedling damping-off disease is Rhizoctonia solani. In this regard, we tried to investigate the antagonistic activities of Pseudomonas aureofaciens (chlororaphis) 30–84 (phenazine producing wild type and non-phenazine producing mutant) strains on R. solani, in comparison with some isolates of P. fluorescent under both in vitro (laboratory) and in vivo (greenhouse) conditions. In the laboratory experiment, the inhibitory effects of all the bacteria, on the growth of R. solani, were evaluated using the dual culture procedure. Results showed that five isolates of P. fluorescent along with both strains of P. aureofaciens significantly inhibited the growth of R. solani. Effective bacterial antagonists were then evaluated in a greenhouse experiment where cotton seeds were coated with their suspensions and were sown in pasteurised field-soil. The soil had been pre-inoculated with a virulent isolate of R. solani. The efficacy of the bacterial antagonists was evaluated by counting the number of surviving seedlings in different treatments, at 15 and 60 days after sowing, for determining pre- and post-emergence damping-off incidence. According to the results of the greenhouse experiment, at both intervals, two isolates of P. fluorescens along with both strains of P. aureofaciens caused significant increases in the number of healthy seedlings, in comparison with the untreated control, and a commonly used fungicide (carboxin-thiram). The efficacy of phenazine producing a wild type strain of P. aureofaciens was higher than its non-phenazine producing mutant, indicating that phenazine plays an important role in the antagonistic activity of P. aureofaciens . Effective bacterial antagonists were then studied for their antagonistic mechanisms. The results showed that all four bacteria employed different mechanisms. The bacteria produced siderophore, and volatile metabolites and non-volatile metabolites, in their antagonistic activities. The results of this study suggest that P. auerofaciens may be a new biocontrol agent for controlling cotton seedling mortality disease.
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
Athukorala S.N.P., Dilantha Fernando W.G., Rashid Y.K., de Kievit T. 2010. The role of volatile and non-volatile antibiotics produced by Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain PA23 in its root colonization and control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Biocontrol Sci. Technol. 20 (8): 875–890.
Cook R.J. 2000. Advances in plant health management in the 20th century. Ann. Rev. Phytopathol. 38 (1): 95–116.
El-Hassan S.A., Gowen S.R., Pembroke B. 2013. Use of Trichoderma hamatum for biocontrol of lentil vascular wilt disease: efficacy, mechanisms of interaction and future prospects. J. Plant Prot. Res. 53 (1): 12–26.
Haas D., Défago G. 2005. Biological control of soil-borne pathogens by fluorescent pseudomonads. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 3 (4): 307–319.
Hagedorn C., Gould W.D., Bardinekkii T.R. 1989. Rhizobacteria of cotton on their repression seedling disease pathogens. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 55 (11): 2793–2797.
Heydari A., Pessarakli M. 2010. A review on biological control of fungal plant pathogens using microbial antagonists. J. Biol. Sci. 10 (4): 272–290.
Heydari A., Misaghi I.J., Balestra G.M. 2008. Pre-emergence herbicides influence the efficacy of fungicides in controlling cotton seedling damping-off in the field. Int. J. Agric. Res. 2 (12): 1049–1053.
Heydari A., Ahmadi A., Sarkari S., Karbalayi Khiavi H., Delghandi M. 2007. Study on the role of common weeds in the survival of Verticillium dahliae the casual agent of cotton wilt disease. Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 10 (21): 3910–3914.
Heydari A., Misaghi I.J. 1998. The impact of herbicides on the incidence and development of Rhizoctonia solani-induced cotton seedling damping-off. Plant Dis. 82 (1): 110–113.
Howell C.R., Stipanovic R.D. 1980. Suppression of Pythium ultimum-induced damping-off of cotton seedlings by Pseudomonas fluorescens and its antibiotic, pyoluteorin. Phytopathology 70 (8): 712–715.
Hu H.B., Xu Y.Q., Cheng F., Zhang X.H., Hur B. 2005. Isolation and characterization of a new Pseudomonas strain produced both phenazine 1-carboxylic acid and pyoluteorin. J. Microbiol. Biotech. 15 (1): 86–90.
Luzz W.C. 2001. Evaluation of plant growth promoting and bioprotecting rhizobacteria on wheat crop. Phytopatol. Bras. 26 (3): 597–600.
Naraghi L., Heydari A., Ershad D. 2006. Sporulation and survival of Talaromyces flavus on different plant material residues for biological control of cotton wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae. Iran. J. Plant. Pathol. 42 (3): 381–397.
Naraghi L., Heydari A., Rezaee S., Razavi M., Mahmoodi Khaledi E. 2010. Biological control of tomato Verticillium wilt disease by Talaromyces flavus. J. Plant Prot. Res. 50 (3): 341–346.
Nowak-Thompson B., Gould S.J., Kraus J., Loper J. 1994. Production of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol by the biocontrol agent Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5. Can. J. Microbiol. 40 (12): 1064–1066.
Pierson L.S., Keppenne III V.D., Wood D.W. 1994. Phenazine antibiotic biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aureofaciens 30-84 is regulated by phzR in response to cell density. J. Bacteriol. 176 (13): 3966–3974.
Pierson L.S., Thomashow L.S. 1992. Cloning and heterologous expression of the phenazine biosynthetic locus from Pseudomonas aureofaciens 30-84. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 5 (4): 330–339.
Prasanna R.B., Reddy M.S. 2009. Siderophore-mediated antibiosis of rhizobacterial fluorescent pseudomonads against rice fungal pathogens. Int. J. Pharm. Tech. Res. 1 (1): 227–229.
Ramarathnam R., Dilantha Fernando W.G., de Kievit T. 2011. The role of antibiosis and induced systemic resistance, mediated by strains of Pseudomonas chlororaphis, Bacillus cereus and B. Amyloliquefaciens, in controlling blackleg disease of canola. BioControl 56 (2): 225–235.
Ravindra Naik P., Sakthivel N. 2006. Functional characterization of a novel hydrocarbonoclastic Pseudomonas sp. strain PUP6 with plant-growth promoting traits and antifungal potential. Res. Microbiol. 157 (6): 538–546.
Rush C.M., Carling D.E., Harveson R.M. 1994. Prevalence and pathogenicity of anastomosis groups of Rhizoctonia solani from wheat and sugar beet in Texas. Plant Dis. 78 (4): 349–352.
Sadrati N., Daoud H., Zerroug A., Dahamna S., Bouharati S. 2013. Screening of antimicrobial and antioxidant secondary metabolites from endophytic fungi isolated from wheat (Triticum durum). J. Plant Prot. Res. 53 (2): 128–136.
Sallam N.A., Riad S.N., Mohamed M.S., El-eslam A.S. 2013. Formulations of Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas fluorescens for biocontrol of cantaloupe root rot caused by Fusarium solani. J. Plant Prot. Res. 53 (3): 295–300.
Samavat S., Besharati H., Behboudi K. 2011. Interactions of Rhizobia cultural filtrates with Pseudomonas fluorescens on bean damping-off control. J. Agr. Sci. Tech. 13 (6): 965–976.
Samavat S., Ahmadzadeh M., Behboudi K., Besharati H. 2008. Comparison of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas isolates in control of bean damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn. Sci. Res. Biol. J. Islam. Azad Univ., Garmsar Branch 3 (1): 1–12.
Shahraki M., Heydari A., Hassanzadeh N. 2009. Investigation of antibiotic, siderophore and volatile metabolite production by bacterial antagonists against Rhizoctonia solani. Iran. J. Biol. 22 (1): 71–84.
Shanahan P., O’Sullivan D.J., Simpson P., Glennon J.D., O’Gara F. 1992. Isolation of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol from a fluorescent pseudomonad and investigation of physiological parameter influencing its production. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58 (1): 353–358.
Sharifi-Tehrani A., Zala M., Natsch A., Moenne-Loccoz Y., Defago G. 1998. Biocontrol of soil-borne fungal plant diseases by 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol producing fluorescent pseudomonads with different restriction profiles of amplified 16s rDNA. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 104 (7): 631–643.
Sivan A., Ucko O., Chet I. 1987. Biological control of Fusarium crown rot of tomato by Trichoderma harzianum under field condition. Plant Dis. 71 (7): 587–595.
Sunish Kumar R., Ayyadurai N., Pandiaraja P., Reddy A.V., Venkateswarlu Y., Prakash O., Sakthive N. 2005. Characterization of antifungal metabolite produced by a new strain Pseudomonas aeroginosa PUPa3 that exhibits broad-spectrum antifungal activity and biofertilizing traits. J. Appl. Microbiol. 98 (1): 145–154.
Validov S., Mavrodi O.V., De La Fuente L., Boronin A., Weller D.M., Thomashow L.S., Mavrodi D.V. 2005. Antagonistic activity among phlD-containing fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. FEMS. Microbiol. Lett. 242 (3): 249–256.
Voisard C., Keel C., Haas D., Défago G. 1989. Cyanide production by Pseudomonas fluorescens helps suppress black root rot of tobacco under gnotobiotic conditions. EMBO J. 8 (2): 351–358.
Weller D.M., Cook R.J. 1983. Suppression of take-all of wheat by seed treatment with fluorescent pseudomonads. Phytopathology 73 (3): 463–469.
Weller D.M., Cook R.J. 1986. Increased growth of wheat by seed treatment with fluorescent Pseudomonas, and implication of Pythium control. Can. J. Plant. Pathol. 8 (3): 328–334.
Wood D.W., Pierson III L.S. 1996. The phzI gene of Pseudomonas aureofaciens 30-84 is responsible for the production of a diffusible signal required for phenazine antibiotic production. Gene 168 (1): 49–53.
Zaim S., Belabid L., Bellahcene M. 2013. Biocontrol of chickpea Fusarium wilt by Bacillus spp. rhizobacteria. J. Plant Prot. Res. 53 (2): 177–183.