Abamectin induced biochemical and histopathological changes in the albino rat, Rattus norvegicus
More details
Hide details
Department of Pesticides, Faculty of Agriculture, Menoufiya University, 32511, Shebin-Elkom, Egypt
Hany Kamal Abd-Elhady
Department of Pesticides, Faculty of Agriculture, Menoufiya University, 32511, Shebin-Elkom, Egypt
Submission date: 2012-10-22
Acceptance date: 2013-07-24
Journal of Plant Protection Research 2013;53(3):263–270
Abamectin (Avermectin B1a), is a natural fermentation product derived from the soil bacterium Streptomyces avermitilis. Abamectin (Avermectin B1a) is widely used as an insecticide, acaricide, and anthelmintic. The present study assessed the effects of repeated subacute and subchronic exposure to the commercial formulation of abamectin (Vertemic, 1.8% EC) in albino male rats. The toxic effects of abamectin were studied. The various biochemical parameters and histopathological changes were noted. A stomach tube was used to orally administer sublethal doses of abamectin suspended in corn oil to the rats. The animals were divided into four groups. Rats of the group T1 were orally administered a sublethal dose of 30 mg/kg body weight (b.wt.) (1/10 LD 50) three times a week for 30 days and the animals in group T2 were exposed to 10 mg/kg b.wt. (1/30 LD 50) for 210 days, once a week. Two control groups (C1 and C2) were used in parallel studies, where animals were administered a corn oil vehicle. At the end of the study period, blood samples were collected from all groups to measure plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, and the levels of creatinine and urea. Also, total protein and RNA contents were determined in the liver and kidney tissues. Changes in biochemical parameters were more intense in male rats from group T2 than those reported in group T1. The levels of ALT, AST, urea and creatinine were significantly elevated in rats from group T2 when compared to the control. In group T2, a significant decrease in the levels of total protein and RNA in both the liver and kidneys was observed. Fertility was also significantly reduced in male rats ingesting abamectin in group T2. The number of offspring was significantly reduced. Histopathological changes were more intense in male rats from group T2 than those from group T1. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrate that subchronic oral administration of abamectin altered some biochemical parameters which correlated with histopathological changes.
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
Abd-Elhady H.K. 2012. Insecticidal activity and chemical composition of essential oil from Artemisia judaica L. against Callosobruchus maculates (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). J. Plant Prot. Res. 52 (3): 347–352.
Abd-Elhady H.K., Heikal H.M. 2011. Selective toxicity of three acaricides to the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae and predatory mite Phytoseuilus persimilis in apple orchards. J. Entomol. 8 (6): 574–580.
Akhtar A., Deshmukh A.A., Raut C.G., Somkuwar A.P., Bhagat S.S. 2012. Prallethrin induced serum biochemical changes in Wistar rats. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 102 (2): 160–168.
Ambali S.F., Akanbi D.O., Oladipo O.O., Yaqub L.S., Kawu M.U. 2011. Subchronic chlorpyrifosInduced clinical, haematological and biochemical changes in swiss albino mice: protective effect of vitamin E. Int. J. Biol. Med. Res. 2 (2): 497–503.
Burg R.W., Stapley E.O. 1989. Isolation and characterization of the producing organism. p. 24–32. In: “Ivermectin and Avermectin” (W.C. Campbell, ed.). Springer-Verlag, New York, 363 pp.
Burtis C.A., Bruns D.E. 2007. Tietz Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry. 6th ed. Saunders, Philadelphia, 976 pp.
Chamulitrat W., Spitzer J.J. 1996. Nitric oxide and liver injury in alcohol-fed rats after lipopolysaccharide administration. Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res. 20 (6): 1065–1070.
Choudhary N., Sharma M, Verma P., Joshi S.C. 2003. Hepato and nephrotoxicity in rat exposed to endosulfan. J. Environ. Biol. 24 (3): 305–308.
Chung K., Yang C.C., Wu M.L., Deng J.F., Tsai W.J. 1999. Agricultural avermectins: and uncommon but potentially fatal cause of pesticide poisoning. Ann. Emerg. Med. 34 (1): 51–57.
Clark J.M., Scott J.G., Campos F., Bloomquist J.R. 1995. Resistance to avermectins: extent, mechanisms, and management implications. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 40: 1–30.
CoStat Program. 2006. Disclaimer and License for CoStat 6.3. Cohort Software Inc, Monterey (http://www.cohort.com/Download...). Accessed: September 2011.
Cox C. 1996. Pesticides and male fertility. J. Pestic. Rev. 16 (2): 2–7.
Cremer J.E., Seville M.P. 1982. Comparative effects of two pyrethroids, deltamethrin and cismethrin on plasma catecholamines and on blood glucose and lactate. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 66 (1): 124–133.
Culling C.F.A. 1974. A Hand Book of Histopathological and Histochemical Techniques. 3rd ed. Butter worth and Co. Ltd., 712 pp.
Doumas B.T., Watson W.A., Biggs H.G. 1971. Albumin standards and measurement of serum albumin with bromcresol green. Clin. Chim. Acta. 31 (1): 87–96.
Dow AgroSciences. 1998. Material Safety Data Sheet., Sanamectin 18 EC. Dow Agro Sciences LOC, Indianapolis, Indiana. Document No. PS 057, 5 pp.
Eissa F.I., Zidan N.A. 2010. Haematological, biochemical and histopathological alterations induced by abamectin and Bacillus thuringiensis in male albino rats. Acta Biol. Hung. 61 (1): 33–44.
Elbetieha A., Da’as S.I. 2003. Assessment of antifertility activities of Abamectin pesticide in male rats. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Safety 55 (3): 307–313.
El-Shenawy N.S. 2010. Effects of insecticides fenitrothion, endosulfan and abamectin on antioxidant parameters of isolated rat hepatocytes. Toxicol. In Vitro 24 (4): 1148–1157.
Evans C.O. 1996. General introduction. p. 1–9. In: “Animal Clinical Chemistry a Primer for Toxicologists” (G.O. Evans, ed.). USA Taylor & Francis Inc., Frost Road, Suite 101, Bristol, 216 pp.
Fawcett J.K., Scott J.E. 1960. Determination of urea (urease modified Berthelot reaction). J. Clin. Pathol. 13 (2): 156–159.
Fisher M.H., Mrozik H. 1989. Chemistry. p. 1-23. In: “Ivermectin and Abamectin” (W.C. Campbell, ed.). Springer-Verlag, New York, 363 pp.
Helling T.S., Wogahn B.M., Olson S.A., Evans L.S., Reddy B.R., VanWay C. 1995. The effect of prostaglandin E1 on liver adenine nucleotides and cytoplasmic enzymes in a porcine model of normothermic hepatic ischemia. Hepatology 22 (5): 1554–1559.
Houto O. 1985. Kinetic Determination of Creatinine. p. 220–234. In: “Interpretation of Clinical Laboratory Tests” (J. Henny, G. Siest, F. Schiele, D.S. Young, eds.). Biomedical Publications, California, USA, 459 pp.
Hsu D.Z., Hsu C.H., Huang B.M., Liu M.Y. 2001. Abamectin effects on aspartate aminotransferase and nitric oxide in rats. Toxicology 165 (2–3): 189–193.
Ivanova-Chemishanska L. 1982. Dithiocarbamates. p. 158–169. In: “Toxicity of Pesticides, Health Aspects of Chemical Safety”. WHO Copenhagen. Interim Document 9.
Kalender S., Ogutcu A., Uzunhisarcikli M., Acikgoz F., Durak D., Ulusoy Y., Kalender Y. 2005. Diazinon-induced hepatotoxicity and protective effect of vitamin E on some biochemical indices and ultrastructural changes. Toxicology 211 (3): 197–206.
Kolar L., Erzen N.K., Hogerwerf L., Van Gestel C.A.M. 2008. Toxicity of abamectin and doramectin to soil invertebrates. Environ. Pollut. 151 (1): 182–189.
Ksheerasagar R.L., Kaliwal B.B. 2006. Histological and biochemical changes in the liver of albino mice on exposure to insecticide, carbosulfan. Caspian J. Env. Sci. 4 (1): 67–70.
Lankas G.R., Gordon L.R. 1989. Toxicology. p. 131–143. In: “Ivermectin and Abamectin” (W.C. Campbell, ed.). Springer-Verlag, New York, 363 pp.
Lowenstein M., Loupal G., Baumgartner W., Kutzer E. 1996. Histology of the skin and determination of blood and serum parameters during the recovery phase of sarcoptic manage in cattle after avermectin (Ivomec) treatment. Appl. Parasitol. 37 (2): 77–86.
Luna L.G. 1968. Manual of Histologic Staining Methods of the Armedforce Institute of Pathology. McGraw Hill Book Co., New York, 39 pp.
Mansour S.A., Mossa A.H. 2010. Oxidative damage, biochemical and histopathological alteration in rat exposed to chlorpyrifos and the role of zinc as antioxidant. Pest. Biochem. Physiol. 96 (1): 14–23.
McCavera S., Walsh T.K., Wolstenholme A.J. 2007. Nematode ligand-gated chloride channels: an appraisal of their involvement in macrocyclic lactone resistance and prospects for developing molecular markers. Parasitology 134 (8): 1111–1121.
Nayak N.C., Sathar S.A., Mughal S., Duttagupta S., Mathur M., Chopra P. 1996. The nature and significance of liver cell vacuolation following hepatocellular injury-an analysis based on observations on rats rendered tolerant to hepatotoxic damage. Virchows Archiv. 428 (6): 353–365.
Reitman S., Frankel S. 1957. A colorimetric method for the determination of serum glutamic oxalacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminases. Am. J. Clin. Path. 28 (1): 56–60.
Schneider W.C. 1957. Detrmination of acids in tissues by pentose analysis. p. 680–684. In: “Method Enzymology” (S.P. Clowick, N.O. Kaplan, eds.). Vol. III, Academic Press, New York, 1154 pp.
Seixas J.N., Peixoto P.V., Armién A.G., Jabour F.F., Brito M.F. 2006. Clinical and pathogenetic aspects of abamectin poisoning in calves. Pesq. Vet. Bras. 26 (3): 161–166.
Shivanandappa T., Krishnakumari M.K. 1981. Histochemical and biochemical change sin rats fed dietary benzene hexachloride. Indian J. Exptl. Biol. 19 (12): 1163–1168.
Shrivastava A.K., Raina R., Choudhary R.K., Malik T.K. 1989. The acute toxicity and biochemial alterations in rats after single oral exposure to dichlorvos. Pesticides 2 (1): 35–40.
Swamy K.V., Ravikumar R., Murali M.P. 1992. Effect of chronic sub lethal daily dosing of monocrotophos on some aspects of protein metabolism in rat brain. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 49 (5): 723–729.
Topaktas M., Rencuzogullari E., Ila H.B. 1996. In vivo chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells of rats with marshal. Mutat Res. 371 (3–4): 259–264.
US EPA. 1990. Pesticide Fact Sheet Number 89.2: Avermectin B1. Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Washington, DC., USA., 143 pp.
Walmsley R.N., White G.H. 1994. A Guide to Diagnostic Clinical Chemistry. 3rd ed., Blackwell Publication, London, UK., 543 pp.
Walter Z., Czakowska A., Lipecka K. 1980. Effect of malathion on the genetic material of human lymphocytes stimulated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Human Genet. 53 (3): 375–381.
Yang C.C. 2008. Avermectin Poisoning. Clin. Toxicol. 46 (5): 351–421.
Yavasoglu A., Sayim F., Uyanikgil Y., Turgut M., Karabay-Yavasoglu N.U. 2006. The pyrethroid cypermethrin induced biochemical histological alterations in rat liver. J. Health Sci. 52 (6): 774–780.