ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Potential toxicity assessment of novel selected pesticides against sand termite, Psammotermes hypostoma Desneux workers (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) under field conditions in Egypt
 
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1
Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, Assiut 71526, Egypt
2
Environmental Toxicology Department, Center for Health and the Environment, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
3
Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, the New Valley Branch 71526, Egypt
4
Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Sohag University, Sohag 82749, Egypt
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Mohamed Ahmed Ibrahim Ahmed
Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, Assiut 71526, Egypt
Acceptance date: 2015-03-04
 
Journal of Plant Protection Research 2015;55(2):193–197
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ABSTRACT
The sand termite, Psammotermes hypostoma Desneux is a major pest in the New Valley Governorate, Egypt. Great efforts have been taken to control the pest. We evaluated the toxicity of four selected neonicotinoids [acetamiprid (20% SP), imidacloprid (20% SL), thiamethoxam (18.6% SC), and thiamethoxam (40% WG)], and one organophosphate pesticide [chlorpyrifos (48% EC)] against P. hypostoma workers. The investigation was done under field conditions, using the palm fronds method. However, the reduction percentages in palm fronds was recorded as the height of the sandy clay formed by termite workers on palm frond surfaces, when the fronds had been treated with a different concentration of each pesticide. The results were recorded after 15, 30, 45, and 60 days. Chlorpyrifos (48% EC) was considered the most potent pesticide among all the pesticides tested, but acetamiprid (20% SP) was considered the most toxic among the neonicotinoid pesticides tested. Moreover, the formulation of thiamethoxam (18.6% SC) was more powerful than thaimethoxam (40% WG). Furthermore, the reduction percentages on palm fronds increased significantly with an increase of the exposure period (from 15 to 60 days), as a result of the surface foraging activity of the sand termite workers. These results are given as unique and encouraging trends in controlling sand termites in Egypt.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
 
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