Preservative potential of cumin essential oil for Pisum sativum L. during storage
More details
Hide details
Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University Haryana, 122413 Manesar, Gurgaon, Haryana, India
Narendra Kumar
Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University Haryana, 122413 Manesar, Gurgaon, Haryana, India
Submission date: 2015-11-03
Acceptance date: 2016-05-30
Journal of Plant Protection Research 2016;56(2):203–210
The samples of stored seeds of pea (Pisum sativum L.) were collected from 30 farmer markets. The mycobiota analysis showed presence of 15 fungal species and one species of insect Callosobruchus chinensis. The fungi such as Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. ochraceous, A. terreus were found to be dominant based on percent frequency of each in blotter method in unsterilized and sterilized seeds 18.9–7.9, 15.0–3.9, 12.2–3.7, 10.1–1.7, respectively, and in agar plate technique 17.9–8.3, 15.1–9.5, 12.8–5, 7.9.7–6.7, respectively. These species showed reduction in terms of weight loss, germination and protein content in pathogenicity testing. Essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation from fruits of Cuminum cyminum L. was evaluated against the most common occurring funi such as A. flavus and A. niger as well as the insect species C. chinensis and the oil exhibited high toxicity. The oil killed the tested fungi and showed thermostable nature at its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 400 ppm. The oil safely preserved pea seeds up to 120 days at 0.50 (1,000 ppm) and 0.76 ml (1,500 ppm) in polyethylene and jute bags of 500 ml capacity containing 400 g seeds separately. There were no changes in organoleptic appereance of food seeds during storage. The oil has beneficial effect on number of visible nodule formation and shoot and root dry biomass of 15-day-old plants in comparison to control sets. The cumin oil was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
Adams R.P. 1995. Identification of Essential Oil Components by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy. Allured Publishing Inc., Carol Stream, IL, USA, 469 pp.
Al-Mofleh I.A. 2010. Spices, herbal xenobiotics and the stomach: Friends or foes? World Journal of Gastroenterology 16 (22): 2710–2719.
Asthana A., Singh A.K. 1981. Fungitoxic properties of essential oil of Ocimum adscendens. Journal of Indian Botanical Society (Suppl.) 60: 13.
Bakkali F., Averbeck S., Averbeck D., Idaomar M. 2008. Biological effects of essential oils – a review. Food and Chemical Toxicology 46 (2): 446–447.
Beck C.W., Blumer L.S. 2007. A hand book of bean beetles, Callosobruchus maculatus. Available on: http//www.beanbeetles.org/handbook [Accessed: 8 June, 2015].
Booth C. 1971. The Genus Fusarium. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, Surrey, UK, 237 pp.
Burt S. 2004. Essential oils: their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods – a review. International Journal of Food Microbiology 94 (3): 223–253.
Chaturvedi R. 1979. Evaluation of higher plants for their fungitoxicity against Helminthosporium oryzae. Ph.d. thesis, Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur, India, 179 pp.
Clevenger J.F. 1928. Apparatus for the determination of volatile oil. Journal of the Pharmaceutical Sciences 17 (4): 345–349.
Davies N.W. 1990. Gas chromatographic retention indices of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes on methyl silicone an Carbowax 20M phases. Journal of Chromatography 503: 1–24.
Dixit S.N., Tripathi N.N., Tripathi S.C. 1978. Fungitoxicity of some seed extracts. National Academy Science Letters 1: 287–288.
Dixit S.N., Chandra H., Tiwari R., Dixit V. 1995. Development of botanical fungicide against blue mould of mandarins. Journal of Stored Products Research 31 (2): 165–172.
Dixit V. 1991. Evaluation of volatile inhibitors from higher plants against storage fungi of Allium cepa. Ph.d. thesis, Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur, India, 151 pp.
Drees B.M., Jackman J. 1999. Field Guide to Texas Insects. Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, Texas, USA, 323 pp.
Ellis M.B. 1971. Dematiaceous Hyphomycetes. Commonwealth Mycological Institue, Kew, Surrey, UK, 608 pp.
Ellis M.B. 1976. More Dematiaceous Hyphomycetes. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew. Surrey, UK, 507 pp.
Ghangaokar N.M., Kshirsagar A.D. 2013. Study of seed borne fungi of different legumes. Trends in Life Sciences 2 (1): 31–35.
Gilman J.C. 1967. A Manual of Soil Fungi. Oxford and JBH Publishing Co. Calcutta, India, 392 pp.
Grover R.K., Moore J.D. 1962. Toximetric studies of fungicides against the brown rot organisms, Sclerotinia fructicol a and S. laxa. Phytopathology 52: 876–880.
Holley R.A., Patel D. 2005. Improvement of shelf-life and safety of perishable foods by plant essential oils and smoke antimicrobials. Food Microbiology 22 (4): 273–292.
Kelen M., Tepe B. 2008. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the essential oils of three Salvia species from Turkish flora. Bioresource Technology 99 (10): 4096–4104.
Khan S.A. 1993. Control of fungal and insect deterioration of blackgram during storage by some higher plants. Ph.d. thesis, Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur, India, 251 pp.
Kumar N. 2014. Adhatoda vasica leaf oil-a potential fumigant preservative for groundnut during storage. Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 1 (6): 392–401.
Lowry O.H., Rozenbrough N.J., Farr A.L., Randall R.J. 1951. Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 93: 265.
Mishra D., Chaturvedi R.V., Tripathi S.C. 1995. The fungitoxic effect of the essential oil of the herb Nardostachys jatamansi D.C. Tropical Agriculture 72 (1): 48–52.
Muskett A.F. 1948. Technique for the examination of seeds for the presence of seed borne fungi. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 30: 74–83.
Pandey D.K., Chandra H., Tripathi N.N. 1982. Volatile fungitoxicity of some higher plants with special reference to that of Callistemon lanceolatus D.C. Journal of Phytopathology 105 (2): 175–182.
Prakash B., Singh P., Yadav S., Singh S.C., Dubey N.K. 2013. Safety profile assessment and efficacy of chemically characterized Cinnamomum glaucescens essential oil against storage fungi, insect, aflatoxin secretion and as antioxidant. Food and Chemical Toxicology 53: 160–167.
Raper K.B., Fennell D.I. 1965. The genus Aspergillus. The Williams and Wilkins Company, Baltimore, USA, 686 pp.
Raper K.B., Thom C. 1949. A Manual of the Penicillia. Boulliere, Tindall and Cox. London, UK, 875 pp.
Sacchetti G., Maietti S., Muzzoli M., Scaglianti M., Manfredini S., Radice M., Bruni R. 2005. Comparative evaluation of 11 essential oils of different origin as functional antioxidants, antiradicals and antimicrobials in foods. Food Chemistry 91 (4): 621–632.
Singh J., Tripathi N.N. 1999. Inhibition of storage fungi of black gram (Vigna mungo L.) by some essential oils. Flavour and Fragrance Journal 14 (1): 1–4.
Smith-Palmer A., Stewart J., Fyfe L. 1998. Antimicrobial properties of plant essential oils and essences against five important food-borne pathogens. Letters in Applied Microbiology 2 (2): 118–122.
Tempe J. De 1953. The blotter method of seed health testing. Proceedings of International Seed Testing Association 28: 133–151.
Tripathi A.K., Singh A.K., Upadhyay S. 2009. Contact and fumigant toxicity of some common spices against the storage insects Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). International Journal of Tropical Insect Science 29 (3): 151–157.
Tripathi N.N., Kumar N. 2007. Putranjiva roxburghii oil-A potential herbal preservative for peanuts during storage. Journal of Stored Products Research 43: 435–442.
Valero M., Frances E. 2006. Synergistic bactericidal effect of carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde or thymol and refrigeration to inhibit Bacillus cereus in carrot broth. Food Microbiology 23: 68–73.
Wellman R.H. 1967. Commercial development of fungicides. In: “Plant Pathology, Problem and Progress” (Holton C.S., Fischee G.W., Fulton R.W., Hart H., Mcuallan S.E.A.). Indian University Press, Allahabad, India, 588 pp.
Wilman K., Stępień Ł., Fabiańska I., Kachlicki P. 2014. Plant-pathogenic fungi in seeds of different pea cultivars in Poland. Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 65 (3): 329–338.