Antifungal effect of powdered spices and their extracts on growth and activity of some fungi in relation to damping-off disease control
More details
Hide details
Plant Pathology Department, National Research Centre El-Behoos St., 12622, Giza, Egypt
Corresponding author
Nehal S. El-Mougy
Plant Pathology Department, National Research Centre El-Behoos St., 12622, Giza, Egypt
Journal of Plant Protection Research 2007;47(3):267-278
The antifungal effect of twenty powdered spice plants and their extracts at concentrations of 2, 4, 8 and 1, 3, 6%, respectively was evaluated in relation to the radial mycelial growth of various soilborne fungi causing damping-off disease. The spice powder or extract were added to the culture medium PDA to obtain the proposed concentrations. Concentration of 8% of powdered spices and 6% of their extracts were able to cause complete growth inhibition of major tested fungi. High significant inhibitory effect on radial fungal growth was observed for different concentrations of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus), cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmannil), garlic (Allium sativum) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris). Meanwhile, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), marjoram (Origanum majorana) and chamomile (Matricaria hamomilla) showed a low inhibitory effect on tested fungi. Moderate inhibitory effect was observed with the other tested spices. In the greenhouse, efficacy of spice plants as powder or their extracts in addition to the fungicide Rizolex-T used as seed dressings against faba bean damping-off incidence was evaluated in pot experiment using soil artificially infested with the disease agents (Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani). Spice extracts showed superior reducing effect on damping-off disease incidence at pre-emergence growth stage to that of powder treatments and Rizolex-T as well, while an opposite effect was observed at post-emergence growth stage. Carnation and cinnamon spices showed the highest protecting effect against disease incidence when applied as powder or extracts. It is interesting to note that spice plants as powder or extracts gave a similar effect to the fungicide Rhizolex-T in reducing damping-off incidence either at pre- or post-emergence stages of faba bean growth. Promising applicable technique could be suggested in the light of the results obtained. The use of spice plants as powder or extract for seed dressing might be considered as safe, cheep and easily applied method for controlling soilborne plant pathogens considering the avoidance of environmental pollution and the side effect of pesticide application.
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
Akgul A., Kivanç M. 1988. Inhibitory effect of selected Turkish spices and oregano components on some foodborne fungi. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 6: 263–268.
Anwar T., Jabbar A., Khalique F., Tahir S., Shakeel M.A. 1992. Plants with insecticidal activities against four major insect pests in Pakistan. Trop. Pest Manage 8: 431–437.
Bodde T. 1982. Entomologists probe chemical defenses and natural enemies. Bioscience 32: 308–311.
Brull S., Coote P. 1999. Preservative agents in foods: mode of action and microbial resistance mechanisms. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 50: 1–17.
Calvet C., Pinochet J., Camprubi A., Estaun V., Rodriguez-Kabana R. 2001. Evaluation of natural chemical compounds against root lesion and root-knot nematodes and side-effects on the infectivity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 107: 601–605.
Cowan M.M. 1999. Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clini. Microbiol. Rev. 12: 564–582.
Daoud A.S., Qasim N.A., Al-Mallah N.M. 1990. Comparison study on the effect of some plant extracts and pesticides on some phytopathogenic fungi. Mesopotamia J. Agric. 22: 227–235.
Dwivedi S.K., Kishore N. Dwivedi S.K. 1990. Fungitoxicity of some essential oils against Macrophomina phaseolina. Indian Perfumer 34: 20–21.
Evan C.W. 1992. Trease and Evans’ Pharmacognosy. 13th ed. Bailliere Tindall, London: 758–762.
Farag R.S., Daw Z.Y., Hewedi F.M., El-Baroty G.S.A. 1989. Antibacterial activity of some Egyptian spices essential oils. J. Food Prot. 52: 665–667.
Gould G.W. 1995. Industry perspective on the use of natural antimicrobials and inhibitors for foods application. J. Food Prot. 45: 82–86.
Harun J., Labosky P. 1985. Antitermitic and anti-fungal properties of selected bark extractives. Wood and Fiber Sci. 17: 327–335.
Isman M.B. 1989. Toxcicity and fate of acetyl chromines in pest insects A.C.S. Symposium series 387. Am. Chem. Soc. Washington: 44–58.
Jay J.M. 2000. Modern food microbiology. 6th ed. Gaithersburg (MD), Aspen INC, 679 pp.
Juven B.J., Kanner J., Sched F., Weisslowicz H. 1994. Factors that interact with the antibacterial of thyme essential oil and its active constituents. J. Appl. Microbiol. 76: 626–631.
Karapinar M. 1985. The effects of citrus oil and some Turkish spices on growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL 2999. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 12: 239–245.
Kim J., Marshall M.R., Wei C. 1995. Antibacterial activity pf some essential oils components against five foodborne pathogens. J. Agric. Food Chem. 43: 2839–2845.
Krishna Kishore G., Pande S. 2007. Evaluation of essential oils and their components for broad-spectrum antifungal activity and control of late leaf spot and crown rot diseases in peanut. Plant Dis. 91: 375–379.
Lanciotti R., Gianotti A., Patrignani N., Belleti N., Guerzoni M.E., Gardini F. 2004. Use of natural aroma compounds to improve shelf-life of minimally processed fruits. Trends Food Sci. Tech. 15: 201–208.
Lee S., Tsao R., Peterson C., Coats, J.R. 1997. Insecticidal activity of monoterpenoids to western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), twospotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae), and house fly (Diptera: Muscidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 90 (4): 883–892.
Momol M.T., Mitchell D.J., Rayside P.A., Olson S.M., Momol E.A. 2000. Plant essential oils as potential bio-fumigants for the management of soilborne pathogens of tomato. Phytopathology 90, p. 127.
Notermans S., Hoogenboon-Verdegaal A. 1992. Existing and emerging foodborne diseases. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 15: 197–205.
Poswal M.A.T., Masunga G., Javaid I., Kwerepe B.C. 1993. Potential of different toxic and medicinal plant extracts for the control of fungal plant pathogens in Botswana. Mededelingen-van-de-Faculteit-Landbouwwetenschappen. Universiteit-Gent. 58: 1373–1381.
Pradhanang P.M., Momol M.T., Olson S.M., Jones J.B. 2003. Effects of plant essential oils on Ralstonia solanacearum population density and bacterial wilt incidence in tomato. Plant Dis. 87: 423–427.
Sagdiç O., Karahan A.G., Ozcan M., Ozcan G. 2003. Effect of some spices extracts on bacterial inhibition. Food Sci. Tech. Int. 9: 353–359.
SAS 1988. Statistical Analysis System. User’s Guide: Statistics (PC-Dos 6.04). SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA.
Shelef L.A. 1983. Antimicrobial effects of spices. J. Food Safety 6: 29–44.
Simões C.M.O., Schenckel E.P., Gosman G., Mello J.C.P., Mentz L.A., Perovick P.R. 1999. Farmacognosia: da planta ao medicamento. Santa Catarina, Porto Alegre, Florianópolis: ed. da UFSC, p. 821.
Singh U.P., Singh H.B., Chuhan V.B. 1984. Effect of some plant extracts and an oil on Erysiphe polygoni. Pfanzenkrankh. Pflanzensch. 19: 20–26.
Thyagaraja N., Hosono A. 1996. Effect of spice extract on fungal inhibition. Lebensm.-Wiss. Technol. 29: 286–288.
Wilson C.L., Solar J.M., El Ghaouth A., Wisniewski M.E. 1997. Rapid evaluation of plant extracts and essential oils for antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea. Plant Dis. 81: 204–210.
Winer B.J. 1971. Statistical Principles in Experimental Design. 2nd ed. MiGraw-Hill Kogakusha, LTD, 596 pp.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top