Biochemical targets affected by subacute doses of new pesticide mixtures tested on albino rats
More details
Hide details
Pestes and Plant Protection Deptartment, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt
Plant Protection Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt
Corresponding author
Shalaby Shehata El-Sayed Mohammed
Pestes and Plant Protection Deptartment, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt
Journal of Plant Protection Research 2010;50(4):513-519
Few studies have characterize the toxicological effects of exposure to pesticide mixtures. For this reason, the present study aimed to estimate the median lethal doses (LD 50) of some new pesticide mixtures; chlorosan, feroban, cygron, engeo and kingbo on albino rats. The in vivo effect of these compounds on some biochemical targets were also investigated. The estimated median lethal doses (LD 50) of chlorosan, feroban, engeo and cygron were 140.8, 264.0, 281.5 and 352.0 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), respectively. The estimated median lethal dose was more than 160.0 mg/kg b.w. in the case of kingbo. The symptoms of the affected animals included salivation, bleeding, activity increase and the chlorosan treated rats closed their eyes. Some animals died after doses of chlorosan, feroban and engeo administered at different intervals. The results showed a significant increase in the activities of plasma transaminases [Glutamic Oxaloacetic Transaminase (GOT) and Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase (GPT)] and glutathione S-transferase (GST). It was found that the tested pesticides significantly inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity 1 h after the last dose. Also, there was a significant increase in creatinine and urea levels. The obtained data concluded that chlorosan was the most effective against albino rats followed by feroban and engeo, while kingbo was the least effective. By the end of the experiment, the enzyme activities and kidney functions of animals treated with chlorosan, feroban and engeo did not return to normal.
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
Anonymous 1991. European Union Council Regulation (EEC). No 209/91, Annex II. Use of this product for organic EU certification may be recognized by the inspection body. Cert. No.: BDOCA 148 Pr.
Anonymous 2005. The Pesticide Manual. Version 3.1, 2004-05, 13th ed.
Chao W., Lu G., Cui J., Wang P. 2009. Sublethal effects of pesticides mixtures on selected biomarkers of Carassius auratus. Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 28: 414–419.
Cohort Software. 1986. Costat User’s Manual Virgin 3.03. Berkley, California, USA.
Coulombe J.J., Farreau L. 1963. A new simple semi-micro method for colourimetric determination of urea. Clin. Chem. 9: 102–108.
Crumpton W.G. 2001. Using wetlands for water quality improvement in agricultural watersheds the importance of a watershed scale approach. Water Sci. Technol. 44 (11–12): 559–564.
Ecobichon D.J. 2000. Our changing perspectives on benefit and risks of pesticides: a historical overview. Neurotoxicology 21 (1–2): 211–218.
El-Gendy K., Aly N., Rashwaan E., El-Sebae A.H. 1999. Biochemical targets affected by sublethal doses of cypermethrin in mice. Egypt. J. Agric. Res. 77 (2): 701–711.
El-Grieb S.A. 1990. Metabolic disorders among sheep reared in Behera Governorate. M.Sc. thesis, Fac. Vet. Met., Alexandria Univ., Alexandria, Egypt: 136–140.
Elhalwagy M.E.A., Zaki N.I. 2009. Comparative study on pesticide mixture of organophosphorus and pyrethroid in commercial formulation. Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 28 (2): 219–224.
Ellman G.L., Courney K.D., Andres V., Featheratone R.M. 1961. A new and rapid colorimetric determination of acetylcholinesterase activity. Biochem. Pharmacol. 7 (2): 88–95.
Finney D.J. 1971. Probit Analysis. 3rd ed. Cambridge, Cambridge Univ. Press.
Groten J.P., Cassee F.R., van Bladeren P.J., DeRosa C., Feron V.J. 1999. Mixtures. p. 257–270. In: “Toxicology” (H. Marguardt, S.C. Schafer, R. McClellan, F. Welsch, eds.). Academic Press, New York.
Grue C.E., Gibert P.L., Seeley M.E. 1997. Neurophysiological and behavioral changes in non-target wildlife exposed to organophosphate and carbamate pesticide: thermoregulation, food consumption and reproduction. Am. Zool. 37 (4): 369–388.
Habig W.H., Jakoby W.B. 1981. Assays for differentiation of glutathione S-transferases. Methods Enzymol. 77: 398–405.
Habig C., Di Giulio R.T. 1991. Biochemical characteristics of cholinesterases in aquatic organisms. p. 19–34. In: “Cholinesterase-Inhibiting Insecticides” (P. Mineau, ed.). Elsevier, New York.
Henry R.J. 1974. Clinical Chemistry, Principles and Technics. Harber and Row Publ., NY, 197 pp.
Kelly W.R. 1984. Clinical examination of the cardiovascular system. p. 260–300. In: “Veterinar and Clinical Diagnosis” (W.R. Kelly, ed.). 2nd ed. Baillier Trindall, London.
Kerem M., Nurdan B., Neslihan G., Ozgur E., Abdulkadir B., Taylan A., Omer S. Hatice P. 2007. Effects of acute fenthion toxicity on liver and kidney function and histology in rats. Turk. J. Med. Sci. 37 (5): 281–288.
Khan S.M., Kour G. 2007. Subacute oral toxicity of chlorpyriphos and protective effect of green tea extract. Pest. Biochem. Physiol. 89 (1–2): 118–123.
Klaassen C.D., Eaton D.L. 1991. Principles of toxicology. p. 12–49. In: “Toxicology” (M.O. Amdur, J. Doull, C.D. Klaassen, eds.). 4th ed. McGraw-Hill, New York,.
Leaver M.J., Clarke D.J., George S.G. 1992. Molecular studies of the phase II xenobiotic conjugative enzymes of marine Pleuronectid flatfish. Aquatic. Toxicol. 22: 265–278.
Lowenstein M., Loupal G., Baumgartner W., Kutzer E. 1996. Histology of the skin and determination of blood and serum parameters during the recovery phase of sarcoptic manage in cattle after avermectin (Ivomec) treatment. Appl. Parasitol. 37 (2): 77–86.
Lydy M., Belden J., Wheelock C., Hammock B., Denton D. 2004. Challenges in regulating pesticide mixtures. Ecol. Soc. 9 (6), p. 1.
Metwalli A. 1987. Clinical laboratory investigation on a common disease manifestation among some farm animals. M.Sc. thesis, Fac. Vet. Met. Alexandria Univ., Alexandria, Egypt: 67–74.
Morifusa E. 1974. Organophosphorus Pesticides. Organic and Biological Chemistry. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press, 387 pp.
Moser V.C., Simmons J.E. Gennings C. 2006. Neurotoxicological interactions of a five-pesticide mixture in preweanling rats. Toxicol. Sci. 92 (1): 235–245.
OECD. 1992. Acute oral toxicity. In: Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals. OECD Publication No. 401. OECD, Paris: 15–22.
Plaa G.L., Hewitt W.R. 1982. Detection and evaluation of chemically induced liver injury. p. 407–445. In: “Principles and Methods of Toxicology” (W. Hayes, ed.). Raven Press, New York, 2270 pp.
Rawi S.M. 1984. Effect of two pesticides (Hostation and Decamothrin) on some amino acids and some enzymes in the central nervous system of albino rat (Rattus norvergicus). PhD. thesis. Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Egypt: 113–119.
Reitman S., Frankel S. 1957. A colourimetric method for determination of serum glutamic oxaloacetic and glutamic pyruvate transaminases. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 28: 26–33.
Richardson J.R., Chambers H.W., Chamders J.E. 2001. Analysis of the additivity of in vitro inhibition of cholinesterase by a mixture of chlorpryifos-oxon and azinphos-methyl-oxon. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 172: 128–139.
Schuler L.J., Trimble A.J., Belden J.B., Lydy M.J. 2005. Joint toxicity of triazine herbicides and organophosphate insecticides to the midge Chironomus tentans. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 49 (2): 173–177.
Sineria industries LTD, Mesa Gitonia, Limassol, Cyprus. www.sineria.org.
Sun Y.P. 1950. Toxicity index: an improved method of comparing the relative toxicity of insecticides. J. Econ. Entomol. 34: 45–53.
Tordior W.F., van Heemstra Lequin E.A. 1980. Field Studies Monitoring Exposure and Effects in the Development of Pesticides. Elsevier, Amsterdam, Oxford, New York, 207 pp.
Toś-Luty S., Obuchowska-Przebirowska D., Latuszynska J., Tokarska-Rodak M., Haratym-Maj A. 2003. Dermal and oral toxicity of malathion in rats. Ann. Agric. Environ. Med. 10: 101–106.
Yang R.S.H. 1994. Introduction to the toxicology of chemical mixtures. p. 1–10. In: “Toxicology of Chemical Mixtures: Case Studies, Mechanisms and Novel Approaches” (R.S.H. Yang, ed.). Academic Press, New York, 720 pp.
Yavasoglu A., Sayim F., Uyanikgil Y., Turgut M., Karabay-Yavasoglu N.U. 2006. The pyrethroid cypermethrin induced biochemical and histological alterations in rat live. J. Health Sci. 52 (6): 774–780.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top