Effect of neem pesticide (Achook) on midgut enzymatic activities and selected biochemical compounds in the hemolymph of lesser mulberry pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)
More details
Hide details
Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, University of Guilan, 41635–1314 Rasht, Iran
Submission date: 2012-08-01
Acceptance date: 2013-07-21
Corresponding author
Jalal Jalali Sendi
Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, University of Guilan, 41635–1314 Rasht, Iran
Journal of Plant Protection Research 2013;53(3):238-247
Synthetic organic compounds and those of plant origin used in insect pest control are known to affect digestive enzymes and biochemical compounds. The lesser mulberry pyralid Glyphodes pyloalis Walker is a monophagous and dangerous pest of mulberry that has been recently observed in Guilan province, northern Iran. In this study the effect of the neem formulation, Achook (0.03% azadirachtin) was studied on nutritional physiology and gut enzyme activity of the lesser mulberry pyralid G. pyloalis. The LC25, LC50, and LC90 values on 4th instar larvae were estimated as 113.6, 256.84, and 1,210.02 ppm, respectively. The neem insecticide exhibited a significant antifeedant activity when used at the highest concentration. When G. pyloalis larvae were provided with mulberry leaves treated with the neem extract, all nutritional indices, except approximate digestibility, decreased. Neem was found to affect digestive enzyme activities in the midgut of treated larvae. When larvae were fed on treated leaves, biochemical compounds in the hemolymph, such as protein, lipid, and glucose decreased but the amount of uric acid increased compared with the control.
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
Annadurai R.S., Rembold H. 1993. Azadirachtin A modulates the tissue-specific 2D polypeptide patterns of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria. Naturwissenschaften 80 (3): 127–130.
Anuradha A., Annadurai R.S. 2008. Biochemical and molecular evidence of azadirachtin binding to insect actins. Curr. Sci. 95 (11): 1588–1593.
Bradford M.M. 1976. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analyt. Biochem. 72 (1–2): 248–254.
Bernfeld P. 1955. α-amylases. Meth. Enzymol.1: 149–151.
Blaney W.M., Simmonds M.S.J.1988. Food selection in adults and larvae of three species of Lepidoptera: a behavioural and electrophysiological study. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 49 (1–2): 111–121.
Blaney W.M., Simmonds M.S.J., Ley S.V., Anderson J.C., Toogood P.L. 1990. Antifeedant effects of azadirachtin and structurally related compounds on lepidopterous larvae. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 55 (2): 149–160.
Champagne D.E., Koul O., Isman M.B., Scudder G.G.E., Towers G.H.N. 1992. Biological activity of limonoids from the Rutales. Phytochem. 31 (2): 377–394.
Chapman R.F. 1998. The Insect: Structure and Function. 4th ed. Cambridge University Press, 788 pp.
Connolly J.D. 1983. Chemistryof the Meliaceae and Cneoraceae. p. 175–213. In: “Chemistry and Chemical Taxonomy of the Rutales” (P.G. Waterman, M.F. Grunden, eds.). Academic Press, London, 255 pp.
Copping L.G., Menn J.J. 2001. Biopesticides: a review of their action, applications and efficacy. Pest Manage. Sci. 56 (8): 651–676.
Diamantino T.C., Amadeu E., Soaresa M.V.M., Guilherminoc L. 2001. Lactate dehydrogenase activity as an effect criterion in toxicity tests with Daphnia magna Straus. Chemosphere 45 (4–5): 553–560.
Franco O.L., Riggen D.J., Melo F.R., Bloch C., Silva C., Grossi de sa M.F. 2002. Activity of wheat α-amylase inhibitors towards Bruchid α-amylases and structural explanation of observed specificities. Eur. J. Biochem. 267 (8): 2166–2173.
García-Carreño F.L., Haard N. 1993. Characterization of protease classes in langostilla Pefgr e ifet em t fet and crayfish Pmetomecmegetmecmeget extracts. J. Food Biochem. 17 (2): 97–113.
Hasheminia S.M., Jalali Sendi J., Talebi Jahromi K., Moharramipour S. 2011. The effect of (Artemisia annua L. and Achillea millefolium L. crude leaf extracts on the toxicity, development, feeding efficiency and biochemical activities of small cabbage Piersis rapae L. (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 99 (3): 244–249.
Huang Z.W., Shi P., Dai J.Q., Du J.W. 2004. Protein metabolism in Spodoptera litura (F.) is influenced by the botanical insecticide azadirachtin. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 80 (2): 85–93.
Isman M.B., Koul O., Łuczyński A., Kamiński A. 1990. Insecticidal and antifeedant bioactivity of neem oils and their relationship to azadirachtin content. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38 (6): 1406–1411.
Jbilou R., Amri H., Bouayad A., Ghailani A., Ennabili A., Sayah F. 2008. Insecticidal effects of extracts of seven plant species on larval development, α-amylase activity and off spring production of Tribolium castaneum (herbst) (insecta: Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Biores. Technol. 99 (5): 959–964.
Johnson D.E., Brookhart G.L., Kramer K.J., Barnett B.D., McGaughey W.H. 1990. Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis by the Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella: Comparison of midgut proteinase from susceptible and resistant larvae. J. Inver. Pathol. 55 (2): 235–244.
Kaplan L.A., Pesce A.J. 1996. Clinical Chemistry – Theory Analysis and Correlation. Mosby-Year Book, MO, 1064 pp.
Keita S.M., Vincent C., Schmit J.P., Arnason J.T., Belanger A. 2001. Efficiency of essential oil of Ocimum basicilum L. and O. gratissimum L. applied as an insecticidal fumigant and powder to control Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 37 (4): 339–349.
Khosravi R., Jalali Senni J. 2010. Biology and demography of Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on mulberry. J. Asia-Pac. Entomol. 13 (4): 273–276.
Khosravi R., Jalali Sendi J., Ghadamyari M. 2010. Effect of Artemisia annua L. on deterrence and nutritional efficiency of lesser mulberry pyralid Glyphodes pyloalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). J. Plant Prot. Res. 50 (4): 423–428.
Khosravi R., Sendi J.J., Ghadamyari M., Yezdani E. 2011. Effect of sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua crude leaf extracts on some biological and physiological characteristics of the lesser mulberry pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis. J. Insect Sci. 11 (156): 1–13.
Kimura K., Lee J.H., Lee I.S., Lee H.S., Park K.H., Chiba S., Kim D. 2004. Two potent competitive inhibitors discriminating α-glucosidase family I, from family II. Carbohydr. Res. 339 (6): 1035–1040.
King J. 1965. The dehydrogenases or oxidoreductases. Lactate dehydrogenase. p. 83–93. In: “Practical Clinical Enzymology” (D. van Nostrand, ed.). Van Nostrand company Ltd., London, 214 pp.
Koul O., Wahab S. 2004. Neem: Today and in the New Millenium. pp. 244–291. In: “Present Concepts of the Mode of Action of Azadirachtin from Neem” (R.J. Mordue, ed.). Kluwer Academic Publishers, 291 pp.
LeOra Software, Polo-Pc .1987. A User Guide to Probit or Logit Analysis, LeOra software, Berkeley, California, 22 pp.
Li X.D., Chen W.K., Hu M.Y. 1995. Studies on the effects and mechanisms of azadirachtin and rhodojaponin- on Spodoptera litura (F.). J. South China Agric. Uni. 16 (2): 80–85.
Miller T.A., Lampe D.J., Lauzon C.R. 2006. Transgenic and paratransgenic insects in crop protection. p. 87–103. In “Insecticide Design Using Advanced Technologies” (I. Ishaaya, R. Nauen, R. Horowitz, eds.). Germany: Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 267 pp.
Mordue A.J., Blackwell, A. 1993. Azadirachtin: an update. J. Insect Physiol. 39 (11): 903–924.
Pascual-Ruiz S., Carrillo L., Alvarez-Alfagemeyy F., Ruiz M., Castan P., Ortego F. 2009. The effects of different prey regimes on the proteolytic digestion of nymphs of the spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Bull. Entomol. Res. 99 (5): 487–491.
Rahman M.F., Siddiqui M.K.J. 2004. Biochemical effects of vepacide (from Azadirachta indica) on Wistar rats during subchronic exposure. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 59 (3): 332–339.
Richmond W. 1973. Preparation and properties of cholesterol oxidase from Nocardia sp. and its application to enzymatic assay of total cholesterol in serum, Clinic. Chemis. 19 (12): 1350–1356.
Ruscoe C.N.E. 1972. Growth disruption effects of an insect antifeedant. Nature New Biol. 236 (5343): 159–160.
Ryan C.A. 1990. Protease inhibitors in plants: genes for improving defenses against insects and pathogens. Annu. Rev. Phytopath. 28: 425–449.
SAS Institute. 1997. SAS/STAT User’s Guide for Personal Computers, SAS Institute, Cary, NC, 18 pp.
Satake S., Kawabe Y., Mizoguchi A. 2000. Carbohydrate metabolism during starvation in the silkworm Bombyx mori L. Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol. 44 (2): 90–98.
Schmutterer H. 1990. Properties and potential of natural pesticides from the neem tree, Azadirachta indica. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 35: 271–297.
Schoonhoven L.M., van Loon J.J.A., Dicke M. 2005. Insect-Plant Biology. 2nd ed. Oxford University Press, 409 pp.
Senthil-Nathan S., Kalaivani K. 2005. Efficiency of nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) and azadirachtin on Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Biol. Con. 34 (1): 93–98.
Senthil-Nathan S., Kalaivani K., Chung K., Murugan K. 2006a. Effect of neem limonoids on lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of the rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenee) (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Chemosphere 62 (8): 1388–1393.
Senthil-Nathan S., Kalaivani K., Chung K., Murugan K. 2006b. The toxicity and behavioural effects of neem limonoids on Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenee) the rice leaffolder. Chemosphere 62 (8): 1381–1387.
Senthil-Nathan S., Chunga P.G., Muruganb K. 2006c. Combined effect of biopesticides on the digestive enzymatic profiles of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenee) (the rice leaffolder) (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Ecotoxic. Environ. Saf. 64 (3): 382–389.
Senthil-Nathan S., Kalaivani K., Murugan K., Chung P.G. 2005a. The toxicity and physiological effect of neem limonoids on Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenee) the rice leaffolder. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 81 (2): 113–122.
Senthil-Nathan S., Kalaivani K., Murugan K., Chung P.G. 2005b. Efficacy of neem limonoids on Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenee) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) the rice leaf folder. Crop Prot. 24 (12): 760–763.
Shekari M., Jalali Sendi J., Etebari K., Zibaee A., Shadparvar A. 2008. Effects of Artemisia annua L. (Asteracea) on nutritional physiology and enzyme activities of elm leaf beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola Mull. (Coleoptera: Chrysomellidae). Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 91 (1): 66–74.
Siegert K.J. 1987. Carbohydrate metabolism in Manduca sexta during late larval development. J. Insect Physiol. 33 (6): 421–427.
Simmonds M.S.J., Blaney W.M. 1984. Some effects of azadirachtin on lepidopterous larvae. p. 163-180. In: “Natural Products from the neem Tree and Other Tropical Plants“ Proceedings 2nd International Neem conference, 25–28 May, Germany, 345 pp.
Simmonds M.S.J., Blaney W.M., Ley S.V., Anderson J.C., Toogood P.L. 1990. Azadirachtin: structural requirements for reducing growth and increasing mortality in lepidopterous larvae. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 55 (2): 169–181.
Tapondjou L.A., Adler C., Bouda H., Fontem D.A. 2002. Efficacy of powder and essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides leaves as post-harvest grain protectants against six-stored product beetles. J. Stored Prod. Res. 38 (4): 395–402.
Terra W.R., Ferriera C. 2005. Biochemistry of digestion. p. 171–224. In: “Comprehensive Molecular Insect Science” (I.G. Lawrence, I. Kostas, S.G. Sarjeet, eds.). Vol. 3, Elsevier,.
Tsujita T., Ninomiya H., Okuda H. 1989. P-nitrophenyl 865. butyrate hydrolyzing activity of hormone–sensitive lipase 866 from bovine adipose tissue. J. Lipid Res. 30 (7): 997–1004.
Valovage W.D., Brooks M.A. 1979. Uric acid quantities in the fat body of normal and aposymbiotic german cockroaches Blatella germanica. Annu. Entomol. Soc. Am. 72 (5): 687–689.
Waldbauer G.P. 1968. The consumption and utilization of food by insects. Adv. Insect Physiol. 5: 229–288.
Zibaee I., Bandani A.R., Sendi J.J., Talaei-Hassanlouei R., Kouchaki B. 2010. Effects of Bacillus thurengiensis var. kurstaki, and medicinal plants (Artemisia annua L.) and (Lavandula stoechas L.) extracts on digestive enzymes and Lactate dehydrogenase of Hyphantria cunea Drury (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Invertebr. Surv. J. 7 (2): 251–261.
Zibaee A., Bandani A.R. 2009. Effects of Artemisia annua L (Asteracea) on the digestive enzymatic profiles and the cellular immune reactions of the Sun pest, Eurygaster integriceps (Heteroptera: Scutellaridae), against Beauveria bassiana. Bull. Entomol. Res. 100 (2):185–196.
Zibaee A., Zibaee I., Sendi J.J. 2011. A juvenile hormone analog, pyriproxifen, affects some biochemical components in the hemolymph and fat bodies of Eurygaster integriceps Puton (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae). Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 100 (3): 289–298.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top