Evaluation of allelopathic potential of safflower genotypes (Carthamus tinctorius L.)
More details
Hide details
Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-8311, Iran
Submission date: 2016-04-10
Acceptance date: 2016-10-13
Journal of Plant Protection Research 2016;56(4):364-371
Forty safflower genotypes were grown under normal irrigation and drought stress. In the first experiment, the allelopathic potential of shoot residues was evaluated using the sandwich method. Each genotype residue (0.4 g) was placed in a sterile Petri dish and two layers of agar were poured on that. Radish seeds were placed on agar medium. The radish seeds were cultivated without safflower residues as the controls. The length of the radicle, hypocotyl, and fresh biomass weight and seed germination percentages were measured. A pot experiment was also done on two genotypes with the highest and two with the lowest allelopathic activity selected after screening genotypes in the first experiment. Before entering the reproductive phase, irrigation treatments (normal irrigation and drought stress) were applied. Shoots were harvested, dried, milled and mixed with the topsoil of new pots and then radish seeds were sown. The pots with safflower genotypes were used to evaluate the effect of root residue allelopathy. The shoot length, fresh biomass weight, and germination percentage were measured. Different safflower genotypes showed varied allelopathic potential. The results of the first experiment showed that Egypt and Iran-Khorasan genotypes caused maximum inhibitory responses and Australia and Iran-Kerman genotypes resulted in minimum inhibitory responses on radish seedling growth. Fresh biomass weight had the most sensitivity to safflower residues. The results of the pot experiment were consistent with the results of in vitro experiments. Residues produced under drought stress had more inhibitory effects on the measured traits. Safflower root residue may have a higher level of allelochemicals or different allelochemicals than shoot residue.
The authors have declared that no conflict of interests exist.
Albuquerque M., Santos R., Lima Melo Filho P., Nogueira R., Camara C., Ramos A. 2011. Allelopathy, an alternative tool to improve cropping systems. A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 31 (2): 379–395.
Allen R.G., Pereira L.S., Raes D., Smith M. 1998. Crop evapotranspiration – guidelines for computing crop water requirements. FAO Irrigation and Drainage paper 56, FAO, Rome, Italy, 300 pp.
Amini R., An M., Pratley J., Azimi S. 2009. Allelopathic assessment of annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum): Bioassays. Allelopathy Journal 24 (1): 67–76.
Ashrafi Z.Y., Sadeghi S., Mashhadi H.R., Hassan M.A. 2008. Allelopathic effects of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) on germination and growth of wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum). Journal of Agricultural Technology 4: 219–229.
Bonamigo T., Fortes A.M.T., Pinto T.T., Gomes F.M., Silva J., Buturi C.V. 2013. Allelopathic interference of safflower leaves with oilseed species. Biotemas 26 (2): 1–8.
Chung I.M., Ahn J.K., Yun S.J. 2001. Assessment of allelopathic potential of barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli) on rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars. Crop Protection 20 (10): 921–928.
Czarnota M.A., Rimando A.M., Weston L.A. 2003. Evaluation of root exudates of seven sorghum accessions. Journal of Chemical Ecology 29 (9): 2073–2083.
Einhellig F.A. 1995. Interactions involving allelopathy in crop-ping systems. Agronomy Journal 88 (6): 886–893.
Emeterio L.S., Arroyo A., Canals R.M. 2004. Allelopathic potential of Lolium rigidum Gaud. on the early growth of three associated pasture species. Grass and Forage Science 59 (2): 107–112.
Farhoudi R., Lee D.J. 2012. Evaluation of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius cv. Koseh) extract on germination and induction of α-amylase activity of wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis) seeds. Seed Science and Technology 40 (1): 134–138.
Farooq M., Bajwa A.A., Cheema S.A., Cheema Z.A. 2013. Application of allelopathy in crop production. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 15 (6): 1367–1378.
Fujii Y. 1992. The potential biological control of paddy weeds with allelopathy. Allelopathic effect of some rice varieties. p. 305–320. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Biological Control and Integrated Management of Paddy and Aquatic Weeds in Asia. National Agricultural Research Centre, Tsukuba, Japan, 19–25 October 1992.
Fujii Y. 1994. Screening of allelopathic candidates by new specific discrimination, and assessment methods for allelopathy, and the inhibition of L-DOPA as the allelopathic substance from the most promising velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens). Bulletin of National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences 10: 115–218. (in Japanese, with English summary).
Fujii Y., Parvez S.S., Parvez M.M., Ohmae Y., Iida O. 2003. Screening of 239 medicinal plant species for allelopathic activity using the sandwich method. Weed Biology and Management 3 (4): 233–241.
Itani T., Nakahata Y., Kato-Noguch H. 2013. Allelopathic activity of some herb plant species. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 15 (6): 1359–1362.
Kabir A.K.M.S., Karim S.M.R., Begum M., Juraimi A.S. 2010. Allelopathic potential of rice varieties against spinach (Spinacia oleracea). International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 12 (6): 809–815.
Kong C., Hu F., Xu X. 2002. Allelopathic potential and chemical constituents of volatites Ageratum conyzoides under stress. Journal of Chemical Ecology 28 (6): 1173–1182.
Miri H.R. 2011. Allelopathic potential of various plant species on Hordeum spontaneum. Advances in Environmental Biology 5 (11): 3543–3549.
Modhej A., Rafatjoo A., Behdarvandi B. 2013. Allelopathic inhibitory potential of some crop species (wheat, barley, canola, and safflower) and wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis). International Journal of Biosciences 3 (10): 212–220.
Molisch H. 1937. Der Einfluss einer Pflanze auf die Andere – Allelopathie [The Effect of Plants on Each Other]. Gustav Fischer, Jena, Germany.
Navarez D.C., Olofsdotter M. 1996. Relay seeding technique for screening allelopathic rice (Oryza sativa L.). p. 1285–1290 In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Weed Control Congress, Copenhagen, Denmark, 25–28 June 1996.
Niakan M., Darvishkhezri M., Iranbakhsh A., Barzegar A. 2013. Changes of sorghum growth in response to drought and allelopathy stresses. Annals of Biological Research 4 (6): 18–22.
Nimbal Ch.I., Pedersen J.F., Yerkes C.N., Weston L.A., Weller S.C. 1996. Phytotoxicity and distribution of sorgoleone in grain sorghum germplasm. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 44 (5): 1343–1347.
Nishihara E., Parvez M.M., Araya H., Kawashima S., Fujii Y. 2005. L-3-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)alanine (L-DOPA), an allelochemical exuded from velvetbean (Mucuna pruriens) roots. Plant Growth Regulation 45 (2): 113–120.
Oueslati O., Ben-Hammouda M., Ghorbal M.H., Guezzah M., Kremer R.J. 2005. Barley autotoxicity as influenced by varietal and seasonal variation. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 191 (4): 249–254.
Om H., Dhiman S.D., Kumar S., Kumar H. 2002. Allelopathic response of Phalaris minor to crop and weed plants in rice-wheat system. Crop Protection 21 (9): 699–705.
Powles S.B., Preston C., Bryan I.B., Jutsum A.R. 1996. Herbicide resistance: impact and management. Advances in Agronomy 58: 57–93.
Pedrol N., Gonzalez L., Reigosa M.J. 2006. Allelopathy: A Physiological Process with Ecological Implications. Springer, Netherlands, 638 pp.
Rice E.L. 1984. Allelopathy. 2nd ed. Academic Press, Inc., Orlando, USA, 368 pp.
Sabagh Nekonam M., Razmjoo J., Karimmojeni H., Sharifnabi B., Amini H., Bahrami F. 2014. Assessment of some medicinal plants for their allelopathic potential against redroot pig-weed (Amaranthus retroflexus). Journal of Plant Protection Research 54 (1): 90–95.
Tang C.S., Cai W.F., Kohl K., Nishimoto R.K. 1995. Plant stress and allelopathy. ACS Symposium Series 582: 142–147.
Tongma S., Kobayashi K., Usui K. 2001. Allelopathic activity of Mexican sunflower [Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray] in soil under natural field conditions and different moisture conditions. Weed Biology and Management 1 (2): 115–119.
Vidal R.A., Bauman T.T. 1997. Fate of allelochemicals in the soil. Ciência Rural 27 (2): 351–357.
Whittaker R.H., Feeny P.P. 1971. Allelochemics: chemical interaction between species. Science 171 (3973): 757–770.
Wu H., Pratley J., Lemerle D., Haig T. 1999. Crop cultivars with allelopathic capability. Weed Research 39 (3): 171–180.
Wu H., Pratley J., Lemerle D., Haig T. 2000a. Evaluation of seedling allelopathy in 453 wheat (Triticum aestivum) accessions against annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) by the equal-compartment-agar method. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 51 (7): 937–944.
Wu H., Pratley J., Lemerle D., Haig T., An M. 2000b. Distribution and exudation of allelochemicals in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Journal of Chemical Ecology 26 (9): 2141–2154.
Wu H., Pratley J., Lemerle D., Haig T. 2001. Allelopathy in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Annals of Applied Biology 139 (1): 1–9.
Yang W., Scheffler B.E., Weston L.A. 2004. SOR1, a gene associated with bioherbicide production in sorghum root hairs. Journal of Experimental Botany 55 (406): 2251–2259.
Yousefi Davood M., Karimmojeni H., Khodaee M.M., Sabzalian M.R. 2013. A bioassay assessment of safflower allelopathy using equal compartment agar methods. Journal of Agrobiology 30 (2): 97–106.
Zuo S., Zhi J., Shao H., Zhao G. 2010. Allelopathy regulates wheat genotypes performance at the enhancement stage by soil water and prohydrojasmon (PDJ). African Journal of Biotechnology 9 (33): 5430–5440.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top